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Numer publikacji: 22876
Dział: Języki obce

Grammar project - The Present Continuous Tense

GRAMMAR PROJECT
THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE

1. Analysis of meaning and use.
The Present Continuous Tense (also called The Present Progresive Tense) is commonly used in English:
-to describe actions or events that have begun but have not ended at the time of speaking
-to imply that a situation is or may be temporary
-talking about the future activities and events that are intended or have already been arranged
-for depeloping situations.
2. Analysis of form.
This tense is formed using two components:
-the verb BE (in the right form)
-and the –ING form of a verb.

Here are the rules, using the example verb “do”:
SUBJECT BE -ING FORM
I am doing
You are doing
He is doing
She is doing
It is doing
We are doing
You are doing
They are doing

Negative sentences are made by adding NOT to the verb BE.
SUBJECT BE NOT -ING FORM
I am not doing
You are not doing
He is not doing
She is not doing
It is not doing
We are not doing
You are not doing
They are not doing

Questions are made by:
-inverseion (the verb BE is put before subject) f.e. Is he drinking tea?
-Inversions and interrogative pronoun f.e. Why is John laughing?
*in questions about subject the verb BE is always 3rd person singular f.e. Who is leaving?

SHORT FORMS
am = ‘m am not = ‘m not
are = ‘re are not = ‘re not
is = ‘s is not = ‘s not

How to make the –ING form
With many verbs, you can Simple add –ING ot the end of the verb. However, with some verbs, you need to change the ending a little. Here are the rules.
Verb ending in one vowel and one consonant -> doble the consonant, then add –ING (f.e. swim – swimming, get – getting, hit – hitting).
Verb ending in one vowel and one consonant and E-> remove E, then add –ING (f.e. come – coming, lose – losing, live – living).
Verb ending in anything else -> add –ING (f.e. say – saying, go – going, walk – walking.

Time adverbials are used at the beginning or at the end of sentences: now, right now, at the moment, nowadays, these days, at present, this week, this month, currently.

3.Areas of difficulty for L2 student / confusion with other structures.
-The Present Simple Tense is used with verbs describing states but Present Continuous can be used with some state verbs when somebody wants to emphasize that a situation is temporary:
f.e. She teaches English in a school. (a permanent agreement)
She’s teaching English in a school. (it may not be permanent)
-The Present Continuous Tense can be used with words like always, constantly, forever to emphasize that the speaker is unhappy about the action, it annoys him/her or include his/her own behaviour:
f.e. They’re always laughing at me!

4.Pedagogical instruments of illlustrating the meaning of the structure.
Explanations in L1:
Czasu Present Continuous używamy przede wszystkim chcąc wyrazić, że jakaś czynność odbywa się w chwili, gdy o niej mówimy. Możemy mieć na myśli okresy różnej długości, np.:
Smith is Whiting a New book. – Smith właśnie pisze nową książkę, może oznaczać, że pisze w tej chwili lub, że pisze obecnie, w ciągu bliżej nie określonej teraźniejszości.
Czasu Present Continuous używamy również mówiąc o przyszłości dla wyrażenia zamiaru lub planowego działania, np.:
Mary is going to the ciemna tomorrow. – Mary idzie jutro do kina.

Explanation in L2:
The Present Continuous is used for situations or events:
-situation happening right now (in the moment of speaking)
I’m reading a book.
-related to the presents in the wider than the exact moment sense
I’m staying in a hotel this week.
-in the nearby future
She’s flying to New York next week.
-for developing situations
The cost of living is going up in our country.

Time lines:
past _______________________present __________________future
X
The moment of speaking

past _______________________present __________________future
XXXXXXXXXX
Temporary situation.


past _______________________present __________________future
X

nearby future

Concept checking questions:
Q:What are you learning now?
A: We are learning English now.
Q:What do you learn every day?
A:We learn English every day.

Q: Are you singing now?
A: No, we aren’t.
Q: Are you speaking now?
A:Yes, we are. We are speaking now.

Q: Who is staying in a hotel this month?
A: Mr. Brown is staying in a hotel this month?
Q: Who stays in a hotel every summer?
A:Tourists stay in a hotel every summer.

5.Contexts for presenting the structure and the means of presentation.
-You are in a shop and you mum is calling you. She is asking what you are doing right now. You have to describe her where you are and what you are buing.
-You are giving a party. You invited a friend who does now know anyone. Tell her about the other guests. Describe what they are doing, wearing and what their names are.
-One of the students is miming one activity f.e. swimming. Other learners must get to knkow what he/shee is doing.

6.Practice of the structure:
a)controlled activity (lower intermediate level)
Fill the gaps with the correct form of the verb in the Present Continuous Tense:
What_____ (be) you_____(do) now?
I_____(be) not _____ (dance) at the moment.
_____(be) they _____(make) a movie?
Yes, they_____(be).
b)semi-controlled activity (intermediate level)
Student A gets questions for their parents:
-Why are you learning English?
-What are you doing now? etc.
Second student (B) answer question. Then student A reports about student B answers.
c)free practice activity (upper intermediate level)
Students are the hosts of a cooking program, they must describe step by step what they are doing to prepare a meal.

7. Comments on the structure and the methodology of teaching.
From my experience students learn very fast when they should use Present Continuous for describing present actions. They make mistakes with using this tense to talk about the future.
Most difficulties come from forgetting about –ing form of the verb or verb ‘to be’ apart from the main verb. What’s more students make lots of mistakes in adding –ing to a verb (they spell the verb incorrectly). Some students are confused if they should add –ing to a verb or to a noun.

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