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Numer: 11930
Dział: Języki obce

Superstitions - przesądy

Temat przesądów jest bardzo ciekawy i obecny w życiu wielu osób. Choć nie wszyscy w nie wierzą, nie każdy gotów jest przyznać się do postępowanie wg różnych przesądnych wytycznych, to na pewno każdy o nich słyszał. Temat ten jest często obecny w podręcznikach do języka angielskiego. Niestety wielokrotnie i ja, i moi uczniowie mieliśmy poczucie niedosytu. Z tego powodu zebrałam informacje w jednym miejscu by mogły służyć uzupełnieniu informacji zaprezentowanych w różnych podręcznikach. Wiedza poniżej zawarta pochodzi z różnych podręczników, opowieści osób trzecich, a także stron internetowych (m.in.
http://www.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk/customs/questions/superstitions.htm oraz http://www.helium.com/items/1765089-mythology-the-most-common-superstitions?page=1 oraz page=2)
• Zodiac signs – Reading horoscopes, checking other people’s personality based on their zodiac signs.
• Some people tend to thank their lucky star for a piece of good luck / good fortune ; saying ‘just my luck’ – when things go wrong.
• Omens of bad luck
1. Number 13 (origin not certain; some say that it is unlucky because there were 13 people at the Last Supper; according to others the superstition about the number 13 dates right back to the primitive days when man noticed he had ten toes and two feet. He thought that anything more than ten must be unlucky; for some 12 is a lucky / perfect number (12 months, 12 zodiac signs) so 13 must be unlucky. Some buildings / hotels have no 13th floor / room. Friday the thirteenth is a very unlucky day. Friday is considered to be an unlucky day because Jesus was crucified on a Friday.
2. It is unlucky to walk underneath a ladder. Some say it’s unlucky because when a ladder is propped up against a wall the base of the ladder forms a triangle. This, in turn, is the signs of the Holy Trinity – and many believe you must never violate it. Others just don’t want to be hit by anything that may fall down (e.g. paint). Another group believe that this superstition dates back from medieval times when criminals were hanging from ladders.
3. It is not wise to cross somebody on the stairs.
4. It is unlucky to spill salt. If you do, throw a little bit of it over your left shoulder with your right hand to counteract the bad luck. At this moment you should say: “With this case may ill luck pass.” Some claim that spilling salt is unlucky because the first person to have spilled salt was Judas at the Last Supper – as he betrayed Jesus spilled salt was therefore considered a hostile gesture.
5. Don’t open an umbrella indoors. It is said that if you open an umbrella indoors bad luck will follow you for years. Some people believe that when you open an umbrella indoors you are inviting the storms or that you annoying the sun.
6. Breaking a mirror causes 7 years of bad luck. The superstition dates back to Celtic times. They thought that when a mirror was broken your soul was broken too. The angered broken soul would then give you 7 years of bad luck as punishment. Others believe that it all began in ancient times , when mirrors were thought to be tools of the gods. To counteract the bad luck some advise to put broken pieces under running water to wash away bad luck.
7. A magpie in the UK is considered to be an unlucky bird associated with devil. The number of magpies is important. It is unlucky to see one magpie. However, seeing two is lucky to see two. (“ One for sorrow, two for joy, three for a girl, four for a boy.”)
8. It is bad luck to let a black cat cross in front of you.
9. It is unlucky to put new shoes on the table.
10. In some parts of the UK meeting two or three ravens together is considered bad. One English superstition concerns the Ravens at the Tower of London. It is believed if they leave the crown of England will be lost.
11. It is said to bring bad luck if you see bats flying and hear their cries. In the middle ages people believed that witches were associated with bats.
12. If a sparrow enters a house it is an omen of death to one of the people who live there. Some people believe that to avoid bad luck, any Sparrow caught must be immediately killed or the person who caught it will die.
13. If you leave a white tablecloth on a table overnight one may expect a death.
14. It is thought very unlucky to have the feathers of a peacock at home or handle anything made with them. Possibly this is because of the eye shape that you can see upon its feathers (the Evil-Eye associated with wickedness).
15. When eating remember that crossed cutlery on your plate may mean a quarrel.
• Omens of good luck:
1. Horseshoes are lucky because, according to some, the iron used to make horseshoes protects you against all evil. Some add that you must make a wish, spit on both ends of it, then toss it over your left shoulder and leave it where it falls for a week. If a horseshoe over the door is to bring good luck it needs to be the right way up. The luck runs out of the horseshoe if it is upside down.
2. White leather is said to be lucky.
3. Especially the Irish think that it is lucky to find a clover plant with four leaves. Some think that those who find a four leaf clover will know great wealth, fame, health and a faithful relationship. If it happens you get twice as much luck.
4. You will have good luck if you catch falling leaves in autumn. Every leaf means a lucky month next year.
5. In some areas black rabbits are thought to host the souls of human beings. White rabbits are said to be really witches and some believe that saying 'White Rabbit' on the first day of each month brings luck. A common lucky charm is a Rabbit's foot. This belief comes from the way a rabbit runs. The back feet touch the ground first which is considered odd. For this reason receiving the feet is lucky.
6. It is lucky to meet a black cat in England.
7. It is lucky to touch wood. We touch; knock on wood, when we want to make something come true. It also reverses bad luck.
8. Remember to cut your hair when the moon is waxing. You are sure to have good luck.
9. If you buy some new clothes put some money in their pockets to have good luck.
10. If a cricket is chirping ( świerszcz ‘gra’) let it continue. Then good luck is to come. However, once you find it evict it at once or else the luck will not last.
• Other superstitions:
1. Wedding: a bride and groom on their wedding day must not meet except at the altar.
2. For good luck the bride should wear “something borrowed, something blue, something old and something new”.
3. The bride should never wear all her wedding clothes before this special day.
4. The husband should carry his new wife over the threshold of their home.
5. If you drop a table knife expect a male visitor, if you drop a fork a female visitor.
6. When finished eating a boiled egg, push the spoon through the bottom of the empty shell to let the devil out

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