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Numer: 9119
Przesłano:
Dział: Języki obce

Błędy zastosowania czasu Present Perfect wśród uczniów liceum oraz dorosłych słuchaczy kursów. Badanie porównawcze z wykorzystaniem korpusów językowych

The Present Perfect usage errors. A learner corpus-based study.

Niniejsza praca jest analizą przeprowadzonego przeze mnie badania dotyczącego najczęściej popełnianych błędów osób uczących się języka angielskiego związanych z użyciem czasu Present Perfect.
W celu przeprowadzenia analizy błędów stworzyłem dwa zbiory krótkich tekstów pisanych, tzw. mini-korpusów językowych, o łącznej wielkości ok. 10000 słów. Pierwszy korpus to korpus tekstów uczniów liceum, drugi składa się z tekstów pisanych przez słuchaczy kursu języka angielskiego (żołnierzy WP). Zarówno uczniowie liceum jak również dorośli uczący się w formie pozaszkolnej prezentowali poziom znajomości języka angielskiego określany jako pre-intermediate, A2/B1 CEF.
Praca zawiera taksonomię błędów zastosowania czasu Present Perfect oraz zestawienie statystyczne występowania różnego rodzaju błędów w obu korpusach. Pozwoliło to na określenie częstotliwości występowania danego błędu, a co wiąże się z tym, na rzeczywistym, a nie intuicyjnym określeniu problemów językowych danej grupy uczniów lub słuchaczy zwiazanych z czasem Present Perfect. W związku ze zdefiniowaniem problemów można łatwo dobrać odpowiedni zestaw ćwiczeń, zogniskowany na konkretne zastosowanie tego czasu.
Oparta o mini-korpusy analiza błędów jest techniką możliwą do zastosowania z grupą uczniów na dowolnym poziomie zaawansowania i uczących się dowolnego języka obcego. Może dotyczyć dowolnego rodzaju błędów, problemów językowych.
Praca została napisana w języku angielskim i jest modyfikacją mojej pracy zaliczeniowej z odbytych studiów na Uniwersytecie Łódzkim.

1. Introduction

In the work, I analyse errors in the Present Perfect tense usage. It is done on the basis of a small learner corpus (short samples of written text taken from 36 learners of English). My analysis aims at finding the commonest errors made by Polish learners. I would like to support the thesis that external factors such as motivation and personal traits may have significant influence on L2 acquisition. I would also like to support the view that one of the most difficult areas to master in TL is that where there are present some new linguistic categories which cannot be observed in the first language1, i.e. the counterpart of the Present Perfect in Polish, in our case.
In the second section, Methods and tools, I describe the methods and the tools which were used during the analysis. It also contains a description of design criteria of the learner corpus as well as a justification of consecutive steps in the analysis.
In the next stage of the work, I present the error taxonomy which I employed in my analysis, together with a short description of the Present Perfect tense usage. Also, in the section, I present the statistics (numbers of the errors in different categories) with relating examples.
Finally, I give some interesting examples of the errors and try to explain their sources.

2. Methods and tools
The first, and preparatory, step into the study was gathering short, word-processed2 samples of written text in order to create a small learner corpus. The result was the corpus consisting of 9807 words. The corpus was divided into two parts (text files). The first part (corpus 1 – 4740 words) contained the samples written by 12 Polish professional soldiers (commissioned officers) from Air and Air Defence Forces, whose average age was 35. All of them had participated in an intensive English course (approx. 500 hours of learning) and were on a pre-intermediate level. The latter (corpus 2 – 5067 words) consisted of the samples written by 24 secondary school pupils. They mainly were the 17–18-year-olds and represented the same level of overall proficiency in English as the former group. The design criteria of my corpus were as below in the table:

Language
Description
Medium
Learner production – written
Genre
Essay - ‘What has changed in
your life for the last year?’
Learner

Level
Pre-intermediate
Age
17-19/ 35
Language learning
experience
Classroom
Education
Secondary school/
first or second degree

Table 1. The design criteria of the corpus

I chose such criteria to obtain two homogenous, but to a degree different, corpora, i.e. different from the point of view of two factors: age and education. These were to help to support the thesis.
Next, I searched through the corpus and found the errors. Then, I classified each error according to its category in the taxonomy which I employed, and created the statistics for both groups of the learners. Eventually, my outcome was the juxtaposition of the errors and their numbers for two different groups of pre-intermediate learners. Such data were ready for further analysis.
The last step, it was the analysis and explanation of the errors. In the stage, I analysed the most interesting cases of errors and tried to explain their sources, i.e. account for why they were made. Additionally, I tried to draw some conclusions and point out some areas to which more attention should be paid.


3. The description of the errors
3.1 Introductory
Following Ellis (1994:51), and other linguists, an error can be defined as a deviation from the norms of the target language. Furthermore, the deviation arises as a result of lack of knowledge and it reflects a low level of linguistic competence (in a certain field). A mistake, on the contrary, is a performance phenomenon and, as such, it occurs when a learner fails to perform their competence, i.e. s/he has some problems with accessing their knowledge. Mistakes, then, are for example so called slips of the tongue. Later on, Ellis asserts that we should pay attention to the distinction since ‘learners sometimes use a correct target form and sometimes incorrect, non-target form, it cannot necessarily be concluded that the learner “knows” the target form and that the use of the non-target form represents a mistake’. Therefore, it can sometimes be regarded as an error and sometimes as a mistake. It is a troublesome question, but a certain solution can be the fact that some linguists argue that mistakes should be eliminated from EA.

3.2 The present perfect usage
According to what Greenbaum, Quirk, Leech, Svartvik (1990:51) write in their work, the
tense is used to refer to a situation set at some indefinite time within a period
beginning in the past and leading up to the present. They distinguish the following types of
the Present Perfect tense and their usages and give the examples:

(a) The state present perfect is used with stative verb senses to refer to
a state that began in the past and extends to the present, and will perhaps continue in the future.
(b) The event present perfect is used with dynamic verb senses to refer to one or more events that have occurred at some time within a period leading up to the present. They distinguish two subtypes:
1 The event or events are reported as news; usually they have occurred shortly before the
present time.
2 The event or events occurred at some more remote time in the past, but the implicit time
period that frames the event or events leads up to the present.

(c) The habitual present perfect is used with dynamic verb senses to refer to past events that repeatedly occur up to and including the present.
‘Unlike the simple past, the present perfect does not normally co-occur with adverbials that indicate a specific point or period of time in the past. The use of the present perfect for recent events may imply that the result of the event still applies. Some adverbials co-occur with the present perfect and not with the simple past. They include the adverb since, prepositional phrases and clauses introduced by since, the phrases till/up to
now and so far. The simple past must be used if the implicit time period does not reach up to the present moment’ (Greenbaum, Quirk, Leech, Svartvik 1990:52).

3.3 The taxonomy of the errors
The taxonomy employed in the analysis is based both on linguistic categories and the ones of surface strategy taxonomy. Such a mixture of the taxonomies, from my point of view, provides a wider spectrum of the errors which can be analysed, and therefore, enables to point out more precisely certain problematic areas of the Present Perfect being used by Polish learners of English. Table 2 presents the taxonomy used.


Category number
Description
1
Simple Past instead of Present Perfect
2
Present Perfect instead of Simple Past
3
Present Perfect instead of Past Perfect
4
Past Perfect instead of Present Perfect
5
Simple Present instead of Present Perfect
6
Misselection of have/has
7
Omission of have/has
8
Wrong past participle form
9
Other errors3

Table 2: The taxonomy used in the analysis.

4. The explanation of the errors
4.1 The statistics of the errors
Category number
Number of the errors
in the category (1)
Number of the errors in the category (2)
Total
(corpus 1 + corpus 2)
1
17
19
36
2
9
18
27
3
0
3
3
4
0
0
0
5
4
5
9
6
1
1
2
7
0
0
0
8
4
1
5
9
9
13
22

Table 3: The error categories and numbers of the errors4.
As it can be observed in the statistics, the predominant categories are 1,2 and 5. Also, category 9 seems to be quite significant (in a quantitative approach) but it consists of many different subcategories (see, the taxonomy – other errors). Category 1, it is the use of the Simple Past instead of the Present Perfect, category 2, it is the use of the Present Perfect instead of the Simple Past and the last category of the predominant ones is 5, that is the use of the Simple Present instead of the Present Perfect tense.

4.2 The explanation
The question is, then: Why are these errors so common? The numbers suggest that the tenses Simple Present and Simple Past are widely used where the Present Perfect should occur. The fact implies that the learners have problems with the application of the Present Perfect tense, as it is neither typical present nor past. In this case, the idea of overdifferentiation seems to work, and it is, in my opinion, a certain explanation of the above mentioned fact. The learners utilize some L1 feature rather than that of the target language (transfer errors). In early stages of learning (elementary, pre-intermediate levels), before the system of L2 is familiar, L1 system is the only one upon which the learner can draw. However, it may be said, too, that they make intralingual errors because they ignore rule restrictions and use rules to contexts where they do not apply. It is difficult to state whether the source of the errors is transfer from L1 or failure to learn conditions under which the Present Perfect usage rules apply (intralingual errors). It seems that the errors can have more than one source in our case.
Let us consider the following corpus examples:
(1)
Our government liquidated 1 a lot of military units.
(2)
In 1999 Poland has joined 2 the NATO.
(3)
I am a soldier, an officer and I am 5 in my military service for a long time.

In (1), there should be used the Present Perfect tense as the results still apply, i.e. there are not a lot of military units now; people are unemployed; there are many other problems related.
In (2), a specific past time (1999) requires the Simple Past. The next sentence, (3), exemplifies an incorrect usage of the Simple Present applied instead of the Present Perfect. The sentence should have the form:
(3a)
I am a soldier, an officer, and I have been in my military service for a long time.

Moreover, many learners use the Simple Past because of the erroneous opinion that some adverbials such as lately, recently are used with the Simple Past, however, they are used with the Present Perfect to indicate an incomplete period of time. Also, they do not seem to distinguish between last and the last. While last refers to a completed period of time, the latter (with for) indicates the duration or continuance of an action or state of affairs up to the time specified by the context. The learners often avoid using Present Perfect by the insertion of a definite time adverbials, therefore, it sometimes is difficult to state whether they write about last year, i.e. 2007 or the last year in their compositions. It seems to agree with Majer’s statement that the learner may be avoiding structures that would better express his/her ideas s/he finds to difficult to form or because is uncertain about the condition of their application (Majer 1993:243).
The observable difference between the first group (soldiers) and the second one (pupils) is that the former made fewer errors than the latter in all the categories, except for category 8, which seems to be marginal.
Although the young are generally more successful than older L2 learners since their identity is less threatened by TL norms, in case of the first group the situation is reversed, i.e. it seems that their personality traits such as high self-esteem (they are officers), risk taking (they are soldiers) as well as education (a degree) and motivation (they have to learn to be commissioned to higher ranks) are prevailing factors in their ‘positive’ L2 acquisition.

5. Conclusions
The results suggest that there are some areas of the Present Perfect usage which are difficult to master by Polish learners of English. As the EA study is pedagogically motivated, it can pinpoint to which errors/constructions more attention should be paid. The analysis outcome indicates the following areas:
a.the usage of the Simple Past and Present Perfect,
b.the usage of the Simple Present and Present Perfect.
More teacher’s work should be done in these two areas, focusing on clarification of the usage differences. This can be done on the basis of Polish-English corpora-based materials, as ‘the access to authentic language data in the form of computer corpora, especially when the training and language instruction do not take place in the native setting, cannot be underestimated’ (Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk 2000:145).
Moreover, the results suggest that motivation and other external factors play important role in L2 acquisition.
I am aware that the study is not exhaustive. There are many possibilities to deepen the analysis, e.g. by examining more error categories, for instance dividing category 1 – the use of the Simple Past instead of the Present Perfect, into some subcategories5. Also, the results would be clearer if I collected a larger corpus. It seems to be a task for a more detailed and advanced study. Finally, the analysis proves that learner corpora can be a helpful tool in FL teachers’ hands.

Notes
1.There can be employed the term overdifferentiation.
2.I used Microsoft Word word-processing software.
3.Into this category, I inserted such errors as misuse of adverbials indicating a specific point or period in the past, e.g. ago, last year, etc., and adverbials co-occurring with Present Perfect, e.g. since, so far, etc., or the Past Progressive instead of the Present Perfect, some ‘irritating’ errors in the Present Perfect syntax.
4.Examples of the errors are available in Appendix 1 (the corpus). The errors are in underlined bold type with numbers of the error category. Sometimes, it was difficult to classify the error or it could be classified in two different categories since the reconstruction of the learner’s intended meaning was troublesome or impossible. In such cases, I left it or chose the most probable version.
5.The subdivision, based on the Present Perfect usages proposed by Greenbaum, S., Quirk, R., Leech, G., Svartvik, J. (1990:52), see 3.2:
the Simple Past instead of the state Present Perfect,
the Simple Past instead of the event Present Perfect,
the Simple Past instead of the habitual Present Perfect.
The same could be done with categories 2 and 5.

Reference List
Ellis, R. (1994). The Study of Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: OUP
Greenbaum, S., Quirk, R., Leech, G., Svartvik, J. (1990). A Student’s Grammar of the English Language. London: Longman
Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk, B. (2000). Computers, language corpora and their applications. In: Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk B., Osborne, J., Schulte, F. (2000). Computers in Language Studies. Piotrków Trybunalski: Kielce Pedagogical University Affiliated College at Piotrków Trybunalski Press, pp 96-163.
Majer, J. (1993). Second Language Acquisition. In: Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk, B. [ed.] (1993). Ways to Language. An Introduction to Linguistics. Łódź: WUŁ, pp 235-248.


Appendix 1
Part One (corpus 1)

I am a soldier, an officer and I am 5 in my military service for a long time. I have seen how has the Polish Army changed 9 over the last few years. The Polish Army had to changed because all world had changed. When the camp of socialist countries in Europe disintegrated in 1989, Poland was in the camp. Warsaw Military Pact disintegrated too. Our country with his army has to adapt to the new system. The Polish Army has begun 2 be great pains to acces to NATO. It happened in 1999 year. Our army has changed lots for thirteen years. A quantity of soldiers has diminished a lot. Many military schools have been disintegrated. Old kinds of weapon were withdrawn 1. Many military units have been disintegrated or its have been moved in the other places. All training system has changed in our army. Time of military service has been abridged about one half. Woman did not use to serve in The Polish Army but they serve in it now. Polish Ministry of National Defence looks for new kinds of weapon for our army. For example Air and Air Defence Forces Command looks for a new kind of general-purpose aircraft. The Polish Army has to have it next year. The Polish Army has got many modern weapons and systems of defence. Recent military history has shawn 8 that of the most effective tactics for an attacking force is a pre-emptive strike on enemy airfields. Our Air Force are now equipped with NATO approved system of RAPID RUNWAY REPAIR. The system enables a runway to be repaired with the minimum of delay so that flying operations can be resumed. I know this system because I saw 1it in the USA and the U.K. when I have been 2 there. Polish officers didn’t use to go to other countries but they can visit the countries and their armies now.In my opinion The Polish Army will be strong and famous in the world.


Many countries all over the world possess permanent armies. The governments these countries spend large amounts of money on the strong, modern army. Because that army only can assure a safety and international status in the world.
The modern army has been a dream of the Polish government also, which has brought a lot of changes in the Polish Army for the last several years.
We have observed different changes in our army for last ten years. Although the most changes we have observed for the last three years. In 1999 Poland has joined 2 the NATO and we have started 2 to think about the smaller professional army. At the beginning a manpower has decreased 2 by about ten percentage. The army closed down many military units, many military schools and military centres of training. Many professional soldiers and civil workers of our army who were very good professionals have had 2 to leave the army then. Military equipment in Polish army is very old and often wrong. So the Polish government started to equip of the army different equipment from foreign countries. Unfortunately this equipment also is not new and cheap in particular that Polish Army does not have enough money. That politics our government destroy our internal military industry. Moreover, salaries of soldiers and civil workers of the army have not changed for the last years. A standard of living many families of soldiers decrease yearly. Many soldiers have to think about different ways of ear of money.
What else I can say about changes in our army?
I think that nowadays the Polish Army has got many modern computers and a better technology. Since 2000 our army has send 8 more and more soldiers to military units, especially to airbases to a few countries of West Europe. Soldiers work, learn and gain a new experience there.
The Polish Army also has send 8 more and more soldiers for peaceful missions to many countries of the world recently. More and more soldiers also learn many different languages in particular English, German and Russian.
In the Polish Army we can notice more and more women nowadays. Women serve in the army the same hardly as men and they often work and serve better than men.
Summing it all up, I think that I will be able to write about changes in the Polish Army much more. But in my opinion nowadays the most thing is a answer for a question, how the Polish Army will be to look at last these changes, for example in ten years, and will the Polish Army be the modern army rally?
I am very interested about it ?!

It is difficult to write at once about what has changed in my life for the last year/ lately. I have been a professional soldier, an officer in Air and Air Defence Force for % years. It has not changed at all. Now I am a happy father of tree dauters because my wife have born them luckily. Maybe it is right then to write about my work, because it has changed significantly for the last year. One year ago I was a lieutenant and now I am a captain – pilot. I was commissioned on 11 of November, our national celebration last year. Then I was sent to a new military post of Polish A&ADF. Since that time I have been in service there. My salary has risen too. My duties has risen twice. I have 7 young pilots under me now and for the last 3 months I have been responsible for their practice. I am young too but I have a little more experience than they and I have spent a lot of time in the air. Now I am on an English course for officers in Mragowo. We, pilots have to be good in English because it is an international language of air space and, of course it is good to speak and understand it , for example on holidays abroad. So, nothing special has changed in my private life for that time but in my work many things have changed.

A lot of things have changed in the Polish Army over the last few years. Poland has been a member of NATO for few years. Everything has changed in soldier’s life since 1999.
From my point of view, work in the Polish Army was stable in the past, but now professional soldiers are afraid about losing their job. Our government liquidated 1 a lot of military units. Many people do not have work now and a lot of soldiers had to move to new places. Well educated young people do not wont to connect their life with the army, because it does not give them anything. Nobody wants to have only duties. Young people also want to be well-paid.
The Polish Army does not have money to buy a new equipment. We have got some military equipment, but I is a drop in the ocean. It seems to be very funny, when we have to send a unit abroad, but we do not have a plane. Polish people boast, that their country is a member of NATO, but in the Polish Army there are not enough soldiers’ shoes and uniforms. Our government thinks about jet – propelled fighters and tanks, but it does not think about soldiers’ life. In my opinion, the Polish Army is just like a toy in politicians’ hands.
Frankly speaking, it was more better in the Polish Army a few years ago, but it will probably be worse and worse. If we don’t have clever members of our government, our army will go to the dogs.

The Polish Army has gone a lot of reorganizations for the last ten years. Most of the changes concerned structurs and the size of army. Our army has been reduced from
220 000 to almost 150 000 soldiers since 1992. The changes consisted in modernization of different equipment too because our weapon system was very dated.
The Polish Army has got a lot of tanks, cannons and infantry fighting vehicles but they are old and sometimes they are very devastated. The Polish Air Force almost has not got the military planes like modern jet-propelled fighters and bombers. Although, our government is going to buy new planes, nobody know what type they will choose. Moreover, nobody know when exactly they will buy them. We have got also the Navy but we haven’t got modern ships.
The beginning of the twentieth century was very important for the Polish Army. In 1999 we joined to the NATO. Our country had to perform a lot of different tasks which were very important for the NATO. We had to stay more compatibile with the members of NATO.
On the one hand we had to change our military strukturs. We had to start learn English then because it is a valid language in NATO. Our soldiers had to know the rules of work in the others armies.
On the other hand a lot of the military units were disbanded and a lot of others were reduced. Last years some of the units changed their place of location and a lot of soldiers lost his work then.
I find those changes strange because I think that the change of heart should take place in the Polish Army first.
The whole process of reorganization is very slowly and very expensive. Our government hasn’t got enough money to lead in all changes immediately but I think that finally it will load to stability of the Polish Army.
I’m sure that the Polish Army will be stronger and much better equipped in the nearest future. Moreover, Polish soldiers will earn much more then they earn now.
I think that if there are clever commanders in the Polish Army, we will become a paid-up member of the NATO very quickly.

In 1999 I started stading at Air Force Military Academy in Dęblin.
It was first time when I can see live in the army. My first posting was to 41st fighter aviation Regiment in Malbork. In over 9 the last decade the Polish Army changed 1 a lot.I can`t write about all changes in army,because these are very difficoult and I do not know about all.
From my point of view I think that the Polish Army changes in good side.
However these are bad side a lot,too. Everybody from our guverment say
that the Polish Army is very good and modern. Sometimes I think that it is not true, because the army do not have money. Before in the army was about
400 000 soldiers and in this time these are about 150 000 soldiers. They must work very hard, because Poland has joined to NATO since 1999 9 .The Polish Army organize a lot of courses for soldiers.They can learn English language and new use tacties of fight. There are fomause military testing ground in Poland when the Polish soldiers and soldiers from other cantries NATO
can learn and practise each other.I think that these are good experience for the Polish soldiers.The Polish Army bought 1 a lot of modern armaments.
They can visit and exercise in countries from NATO for example Canada, USA,
France...
As a matter of fact I think that for few years the Polish soldiers will be fomause in over the world.

A lot of things have changed in my private life for the last year, but nothing has changed in my job. My little son, Bartek has been born lately. He is so small and nice. I am a happy father now. Since his birth day everything in our home has changed. We all rush over him to fulfil all his needs. My parents are also very happy. They are grandparents now. This is the first grandson, you know. Simply speaking all the family is happy. In my job nothing spetial has changed. I am still captain. I like my job but sometimes it is really difficult and tiryng, so sometimes I am totally exhausted. Latelly I have explained an affair, because some young soldiers in my unit were drunken during the duty and it could cause an accident. But happily nothing happened wrong. It is terrible how people can be not responsible sometimes. I hope for better future in the army in a few years’ time. Many has been done but many has to be done in the future time yet.

All in all that I have worked in the Polish Army since 1995.
During 9 these years there were 1 a lot of change.
There are also many adventages, for example it is easier to get accomodation,
also salary is higher and unemployment benefits .Moreover we can also retire earlier often after 15 years of service Besides our funerals are free of charge.
We have special holiday. We can attend and complete various courses and so
on. Moreover we have a lump sum for uniform. On the other heand, there are some disadventages such as unlimited time of work, salary is also low.
A lot og changes have begun in the system of army education in Poland, because of the restructuing of the Polish Army the number of oficers school is decreasing some of them merge, some are closed-down. In the future there will be 3 academies training oficers the Navy Army, land forces, and the Air force plus the National Defence Academy. From my point of view
very importand change was joined Polish Army to PACT NATO.I think that these changes in the Polish Army will be a lot.

During 9 the last several years in the Polish Army changed 1 a lot, similar as our country. The end the twentieth century brought changes not only in Poland but in all Europe and the World also.
In 1999 Poland joined to North Atlantic Treaty Organisation and it was major reason transformations in the Polish Army too. It has be reduced 8 from 300 to 130 thousand soldiers. A lot of soldiers have made 9 redundant, especially older people. It won’t be easy for them because unemployment in our country is a lot. They will have to look for a new job in civil offices and factories or at last they will retire.
A few years ago national service in Poland was two years time long. Today it is only one year long. In future it will be probably about seven months long. Young men are very happy with this cause. Appeared also new form of service – contractual service. On active service in the army are more women than few years ago. They are serious soldiers in uniforms not only secretaries, waitresses, cooks or accountants. Some young women are even pilots.
For the last few years a lot of units was closed 1 . In other they reduced 1 a number of staff. The Army decided 1 that officers have to speak English, therefore they must learn English on five – months courses (each level).
Other important matter is armament. The Polish Army must buy and implement new warships, tanks, fighters, helicopters and much more other equipment. The government has to solve a very important problem – how finds money for it all things. Old armament and equipment must be changed during few years.
In the Polish Army has changed a lot for recent years. Sometimes there are changes very difficult and painful for soldiers.

It is difficult to write at once about what has changed in my life for the last year. I have been a professional soldier, an officer in Air and Air Defence Force for 7 years. It has not changed at all. Now I am a happy father of my daughter Monika. A lot of things have changed in my private life for the last year, but rather nothing has changed in my job. My little doughter has been born. She is so small and nice. I am a happy father now. I miss her and my wife because I am on an English course for military purposes. Everybody know that we, pilots have to be good in English because it is an international language of air space and, of course it is good to speak and understand it , for example on holidays abroad. I experienced this when I was in Spain with my family last year. You could speak Spanish – it is natural, and English and everybody understand you. Some people can speak German, too. It was very nice when I could buy beer or souvenirs for friends and the people knew what I wanted. But I had also night mares like in Zywiec beer TV comertial that a barman does not understand me. I think it is good that I have started learning English, now I feel more confident in myself when I speak with someone in English.


After the Second World War my country was in the “Warsaw Pact”. When social movement “Solidarnosc” won election in 1998 year started a big changes in my country. Large changes started in army, too. This changes finished join to the Polish Army to NATO.
In my opinion main change in the Polish Army is reduction numbers of soldiers. 90s years Polish Army was very strong and numerous, it had about five hundred thousand soldiers. Our army had strong air force and tank force. In 1990 year started decrease numbers of soldiers. In 2002 year the Polish Army had only one hundred thousand fifty thousand soldiers. This process is still continuing. In 2007 polish Army will have eighty thousand soldiers only.
The next very important matters are changes command organization and use the Polish Army in case of war. When our country was the “Warsaw Pact” they were strictly definite. Main rule was on attack. It is changed 5 because the role Polish Army is defence Poland only.
Nowadays in Polish Army are created new structures. For example we need more attack helicopters because the air cavalry have been created.
I think it is a good idea. I think that situation Polish Army changed 1 for worse. Polish Army has a lot of problems. The most important of them are source of financing, equipment and organization. Polish Army have rather old equipment at the moment, Polish Army need more equipment, especially modern aircrafts.
The big change for better is that a lot of soldiers have opportunities to learn a foreign languages, especially English. They can study in different foreign military academy. Polish soldiers can visit different foreign countries and learn about their culture. There are a lot of different international exercises, where Polish soldiers have opportunities train together with others NATO soldiers.
Summing it all I think that our Army make 5 lots of changes but a lot of them for worse. I hope that stupid changes just finished 1 and now will be changes for better.

On the 12th of March 1999 Poland become member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Since this very important day Polish Army has changed very much, because the army has to performe norms of NATO.
Many militery units were reorganized 1 and other units were disbanded 1 . Because of that many soliers are out of their work.
Polish Army is equipped with new aeroplanes, ships, tanks, cannons, etc., which were made abroad. This equipment is very expensive and more complex, so soldiers have to train very much. All Polish soldiers have to learn English.
Polish Army has become the professional army. Seveler women started to work for the army. In the army there are many chaplains and psychologistes, which look after a psyche of Polish soldiers. Therefore the army has become more and more humanitarian.
In 1998 became Polish-Ukrainian battalion and Polish-Lithuanian battalion. These units are prepered to participate in peacekeeping and humanitarian operations.
Many Polish soldiers serve in peacekeeping forces in Albania, Afganistan and former Yugoslavia. They cooperate with other soldiers and they get very good ratings.
On the other hand there are 5 many changes for the worse in the Polish army.
The Polish army get less money, so soliers have less battle camps, new equipment, exercises, etc. Soldiers earn too little money. Because of that very good soldiers and experts left 1 the army. They work for civil companies. They have got a peacefull work and a well paid work.
Some generals and high oficers argue with themselves about a control in the army. There are many quarrels and scandals, which break a good name of Polish Army.

I never have been 9 in army. I graduated a civil high school. Then I have gone 2 to army’s corse for a year. I and my family rented the flat in Bydgoszcz. We had a difficult situation.
When I became a soldier, I got a new big flat and better salary. I did not know Polish Army. I met in army bostardy people. They did not have high education, but they have been 2 my superiors. They treated me badly. I was a “number” – not person. I didn’t have name and military rank. I often have worked for a week. I did not get any rewards. Aircrafts have flown 2 from Monday to Sunday. My life was difficult but I did not worry about future.
Polish Army and my life changed 1 a lot. I see changes for the better, for example:
- our superiors must have hight education
soldiers can complete vatious courses
we can go abroad on holiday or bisinesy, especially to west
we can meet new technology
we often work on the west devices
we can meet soldiers from all over the word
On the other hand I see changes forthe worst.
we don’t know how long we will work in army
Polish soldiers do not earn a lot of money
our hight superiors do not take care of us, they think only about themselves
Polish Army have not got enough money. We often have not got money to buy printer’s paper and Polish Army want to buy new military plane.
Now Polish Army belong to alliance “NATO”. From my point of view, I don’t see a lot of adventages this marriage. I don’t feel improvement in my life. I belive that in Polish Army soon will be better.

It is difficult to write about things which have changed if you thing nothing has changed at all. It is terribl how nothing changes and there is no prospects for future as it was said few years ago in the early 1990’s years. I am disappointed now. I have learned for all my life to be a pilot. 9 years in different military schools about exercises which were sometimes stupid I do not mention and I earn little money . It is not enough for a good life of a standard family. But remember I risk my life every time I get into these bloody Migs. They maitenance and technical conditions are terrible. I am not a Japanese kamikaze, I am a Polish pilot. From time to time you can hear about some catasrophe. I am waiting patiently for new planes for the army, probably they will be American F-16. I must admit that I love this job although it is extremely dangerous using such an old equipment and planes. So the only way is to wait. I would like to earn more for my risk, I think it is wholly justified. Today I am a little bit nervous so may be my writing is too much pessimistic, but it contains a lot of true. For me nothing or very little has changed at all. I try to think positively, and may be something will change for better in the future time.

The Polish Army has changed a lot over the last few years. A lot of soldiers and their families has felt 6 this changes until now.
The Polish Government has liquidated many Military Units recently besides he has liquidated many places of employment. Many soldiers have already lost their work in the army and they have to look for a new work. It is a big problem becouse it is not easy to find a good work now when many people can’t find it.
Our army has sold many unnecessary facilities and armaments becouse Military Units don’t have enough money for repair armaments.
The Polish Army has bought few new armaments but in our army is more old armaments than new.
On 12 March 1999 Poland jointed to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
In the Polish Army work biger and biger women.
Although the Polish Army is more and more modern but I think that our army isn’t as modern as other armies world.
The Government modernize the Polish Army for few years but our army has had to changer a lot yet.

The Polish Army is not the same today how the Polish Army was for example five years ago. The Polish Army has changed for this time. Today The Army has less soldiers, less units, and objects. Many tanks, aircraft, ships, and other equipment has destroyed or sold 9 for this years. The Army destroyed 1 only dispensable and very old unnecessary apparatus. The Army have given a lot of buildings and barracks over to civil local administration recently. The Republic of Poland stayed member of NATO about three years ago. The Army consequently has proceeded to do new things. The Army has had to otherwise operate. The Army has taken part in peace operation for this time (for example peace building). The Army has taken part in operations other then war. The Army has bought a new equipment such as transport aircraft, multirole combat aircraft, commons, ships, and radars, and radio. The Army still has had less money both now and past. The Army has planned its own development. Few years ago the Government planed big changes and wanted building a new model Army. This model wasn`t realized in this time because wasn`t too big money. At present The Army has a difficult time too. Every budget of Ministry of National Defence is very little. Now there are less field`s exercices and staff`s exercises. But soldiers have not had 9 very well paid for the years. Many of soldiers have worked abroad. Soldiers have learnt foreign languages. Many soldiers are very disappointed that nobody wants to help them when wind unit up. Then soldier`s wifes are the unemployed because they have had to go witch husbands to another part of country. Many soldiers lost 1 their job and don`t have to find new job. I think that military service is very hard but very interesting.
I think that some things have changed in my life lately. I am on an English Course for soldiers. I have always wanted to learn English, but some of my collegues have not. It somehow enjoys me. I learned English before that is in my high school, long time ago. When I arrived on the course of the 1 level I had simply emptiness in my head. Later I started to recognize some English structures I had learned before. I am quite happy to be here and learn. As you probably know, English is very important in my work because I am a flight controller. I have to understand what the pilots want from me and inform them about their flights parameters. We talk in Polish in our air space, but sometimes we have guests and then I am very nervous. Luckily there are some persons who speak English much better then me and they can help me. I have read lately that in France it was almost an accident because the crew on the board said to a controller: fire on the board, but the controller on earth understood: five men on the board. All the people down thougt it was a terroristic attack Fortunatelly everything finished happily but this controller does not work there any longer. My work and pilot’s is hard and we all think that we should be better paid. We know that our government has no money but our work is really responsible. I like it. Recently, I have been given a medal for a good service. I am proud of it. My son has been admitted to lyceum. He is a good pupil I think. That is all, nothing more comes to my mind.

Part Two (corpus 2)
I have bought a new car recently. It is a Mercedes. The car has been equipped with cd player. The car I have had for 2 weeks. My friend has bought a car too, but he has bought 2 his car one month ago. He has had an accident.
My other friend has bought a new flat. He has been 3 happy to yesterday. Yesterday his flat was stolen.
My grandmother has bought 2 a new watch in July. It was a swiss watch. Her watch was very good for two weeks. After two weeks he has broken 2 down and she was sad.

For the last year changed 1 my life a lot. I knew 1 many news people (but about this I’ll write latter ). I am seventeen years now, I passed 1 to third class of secondary school and I finished 1 a second level of ... School and I continue learning there. I play on guitar better. I have my own room, etc.
I met 1 a lot of news people. First were Krysia from Opole, Tomek and Ewa from Sosnowiec with whom I am in strong familiarity. And that is all thanks for Beata from Sosnowiec which I met three years ago. And althought They are elder than me. I think that I can say about them :”They are my friends”.
In the holiday I and my olds friends from Mrągowo (Marta, Aga , Paulina) met Natalia , Zbyszek , Monika and Jędrek from Mrągowo too. Afther this we spent all the time together. Every day we went on the beach and sometime we slept in house on Aga’s plot. We were together on the concert for chance Szczytno’s day and nights in July. There was Magda which is my friend too but I have just realized 2 this the other day , although I have know 3 her since 9 fourteen years.
I know 5 Ania who is my friend now. Besides this all my mentaly was changing 9 and it’ll still change.I know what I would like to do in future and I think about this very often. More or less for the last year changed 1 a lot with my life.

Some things have changed in my life for the last year.
First, my sister three months ago gave birth to a daughter, so now I am aunt. I have my first little niece. My sister, her husband and she live in Sopot, but now we see each other more often than earlier.
Next, my second sister has left to Ireland. She had studied in Toruń and now she is in fifth year at University College Cork, so I will not see her until a year. It is horrible. I miss her.
Third, my cousin stays in my house. She lives in Kętrzyn, but she learns at school in Mrągowo, and goes home only for weekends. So I have someone I can to talk to.
Fourth, I started 1 High School. I am at a new school, with new teachers. Every day I meet new people. I have a new class, new friends. Everything is different now. But I really like it.
And I start 5 study at ... School, too.

When one year ago I changed class for quite different I do not suppose that it will be some radical changed. In spite of the fact that I accustom oneself for new people and new the environment now I do not exchange that class for another in the world. I met many new and quite different persons. I changed 1 my tutor (homeroom teacher), who is humorous and he perfectly fit to us. I think that more important things is fact it manage to come on for the last year this relation witch study. I am more serious in approach to subjects and for example therefore I enroll in supplementary lesson of English which make me get better job in future. I have a new room (my brother moved 1 out ). Is smaller and is the best now. Also important change in my life is met my boyfriend. We had a lot in common and quickly became couple. By means of this change now I feel better and I think that good for me this affect.
I think the things have changed for better for the last year.

For the last year in my life has changed a lot. One day my parents went earlier to bed. They were in a good humour. I was very interested, because they have never gone 3 to bed so early before. One month later mum said me that I’ll have a sister. I was very happy, because I always want to have a siblings. All the time we’ll get ready for baby’s coming. We bought necessary things and prepared babys’ room. After nine months to our house arrived a new person. Her name was Alice. She was so little and beautiful. We had took care off her all the time, although she was a very calm baby. By lapse of time Alice became more and more clever and lovely. I went for a walks with her, we were playing together from 1pm. to 3pm. every day. Now she is 1,5 years old. She has a brown hair and a green eyes. She likes watching TV and drawing the pictures. We always have a good time together and we’re the best sisters all the world.

I spent my holidays at the seaside on a camp in Krynica Morska. There was so funny. On the first day we went on a beach and had a sunbathe. Later we visited the city and we went to the funfair. All next days we spent on a beach. I met there a lovely boy. His name was David. He was a barman. I went with my friend to his bar. I fell in love him from the first look. He has a black hair and a big, brown eyes. He was from Elbląg. He arrived here to found a job. We met every day. We went for a long walks along the sea and talked a lot about everything. The time passed very quickly. When arrived the time to went back home I was very sad and I cried. We promised each other that we’ll write and ring. Till now we’re 5 in touch.

Our life has changed 9 constantly. I have been very happy lately, because of a very good contact with my parents and friends. I have met a lot of interesting people. I have spent more time with my friend. We have had good fun together. I have been feeling 9 more necessary and I smile more than earlier. One of the most important changes in my life is that I have got a very nice and lovely dog – Keisi (miniature of sznaucer) - I have been given a partner to walking and running.
But there have also been some bad changes in my life. Now I have less free time because I have a lot of additional activities and I have to more learn as I will have a high school diploma. I am often very tired, overworked and sometimes I sick of everything. But thanks to it I watch less TV and I have not time for a stupidilities, for example staying in front of the mirrow.
I think that many changes will take place in my life...every day has carried changes... so far.

I have changed many things in my life for the last year.
First of all I have changed school.
My new school call „The Unit Schools named Władysław Jagiełło”. I have
new teatchers and friends. My the best new friend’s names are Rafał and Robert. They interested in quite another things than my friends from my elementary school. They have different hobbies. For example Rafał likes body-building. He often trains in gym-hall in sport club. Robert plays football and table tennis everyday. He is very good sportsman.
My new teachers are quite diffrent too. Our form master is very fine. She organized very interesting trip to Grunwald and Olsztyn in September. We visited famous manument of great battle. But the most interesting part of this trip was visit in theatre. It was „Macbet” by William Shakespeare. During this voyage we can better introduce ourselves.
Second transformation is new order of my day.
Now I must reach to my school by bus. Is is very important and difficult for me because I like get up very late. When I was student of elementary school I can get up exactly five minutes to eight. Now it is impossible. After school I must wait for my bus until to three o’clock. In the end I come back about four.
Mathematic - my favourite subject which I always liked now is my hate. In new school it is very difficult and now I don’t like it. I have many problems with German language and mathematic.
This is all about my new school.
I think that this year is critical moment of my life. It is strange but interesting.

It was very difficult year for me.
I had to change several affairs in my life in this period. The most important change was a start to do research for a doctor’s degree. It was difficult choise what kind of science will be good for me. I can prepare my dissertation only in special research institute. Botany is my hobby but in this discipline our Academy ( Polish Academy of Sciences) has Institute near Poznań. In this case it could be arduosness for me because it is too far.
In the end I decided that I will be preparing my work in Economics Depertment of Agricultural University in Warsaw. I did some science works in this university. It was interesting but less than my favourite biology. I started to collect necessary informations about my subject.
I started to do other science subject too. It was very interesting project connected with the sewage-treatment. Together with one of professor from Olsztyn University we built an experimental raft with three species of plants. We observed what kind of plants is the best for sewage-treatment.
It means that in my professional life it was happend a few changes.
So, in my private life last year was similar than previous.

Many things have happened in my life since last year .My life
is now different , maybe worse than before .Life has changed
and I’ve changed too. I think that I’m more responsible and
mature than I used to be. Why? Well, the worst and the most
painful was death of my grandmother,Zosia.She died in Dece-
mber ,after long and exhausting illness.She was my only grand-
mom and I loved her with all my heart . It was difficult moment
for all my family ,especially for my grandfather Wacław and for
my mother.That was the first Christmas that we spent without my
grandmother .
Past year was also very hard because that last year in my
old school , Gimnazjum number 4 in Mrągowo. I learned
a lot in spite of passing my final exams, which had place in May.
I graduated my school with honours(as a result of good marks on
my certificate).I had big problem with choosing grammar school.
Finally, I decided to go to the comprehensive school in Olsztyn,
which is about 66 kilometres far from my home city, Mrągowo.
So, since September I am 5 a commuter (it takes me about 3 hours
a day to go to school and come back from it).
My mother has been unemployed for 3 years till now so situation
of my family(I live only with mother) isn’t very good.
I hope that last year brought me a lot and I will be wiser
and more sensible for the future. And I believe that from now on
my life will be better and full of happiness.

Last year was a very important one in my life. Many significant events happened making my life happier. The most important fact was that I got married after five years of dating with the man of my dreams. A year ego we angaged and all the preparations for the ceremony started. Just after that I left my parent’s house and now we live together in our new two – room flat. Second importand fact was my come back from Posen after four years of studying tourism there. It was not that easy because I got used to living in a big city where one can deal with and find almost whatever he wants, the cultural life is wider and there is lot of entertaining objects. Mrągowo is just a small town but it is my hometown where I grew up. Last year was also full of happy events connected with our friends’ life. We attended many wedding ceremonies of our friends and few babies were born. In my opinion it was a very good year.

For the last year many different things have changed, I am teenager and try to recognize the surrounding world. It is sometimes difficult and from time to time quite easy. I can divide changes by positive and negative.
I start with positive changes. First one was beginning learning in ... School. It was good for me, because my English was terrible before that. Then I was talked into playing on a violin in a group. We were performing so-called singing poetry. Besides in my opinion meeting new people was also good for me.
But I suppose that my the biggest achievement was passing a driving-licence. Although I was terrified when I was on exam, I have simplify life now.
One of negative things was change a few of my old teacher in high school. For example I enjoy my historian, because lessons with her was very interesting, but she had to leave us.
I think that the most important is my still changed age. I am older and older, and thanks to this I have more and more duties. Everyone tell me that I must be responsible, because soon I will be adult.
I am of the opinion that there was many of changes for this time, so I can’t describe all of them.

The last of my year doesn’t be 5 very perverse. I have been 9 older of one year. I’ve finished one high school and begun the other which will be end for two years. I’ve started learn English again. I’ve made two courses, first of computer and the second of agroturistic. Iam for the next time an aunt becouse the wife of my brother bored 2 a baby. My legal status haven’t 6 changed but I’ve been having 9 a boyfriend for three years. We were engagment in last december. We also have been starting 9 build our flat and I hope so that we’ll leave in soon. I’ve been meeting many interesting people and some of each have been happening 9 my friends. I was for the first time on the flow down of kajak in august. It was very exciting time. I’ve got a hourse and I’ve been learning how to proceed with it. It is very hard work becouse hourses are very delicate and shy. Now I’m learning ridding hourse by myself.
I’ve founded 8 a job but only for three month. If I am good mayby it will be for one year, perhabes more.
Now I haven’t enough time to do everything very well. I hope that I can be up to my duty.

My life is not boring but also is not interesting. Last year I didn’t do any special things, but are some small ones that I have done 2 , like....
Last summer was very hot. Sometime was raining but most time sun was shining sow strongly that was stuffy even in shade. In this summer I was a meet couple friend. It has been 2 great. In September I have started 2 learning in English school. I’m fond of learning of it.
Last year also I have read 2 in the orthodox language. This one isn’t very simple, but resemble in small part Russian. Besides these all-learning things I cut my hair and I were very happy.
I don’t now what write in here.
I think about my pets. My father has brought me tree little cats. I have also a dog, called Tona. She is a big, black dog and she does not like these little animals. It is looks great when they sleep together. This sight it is bringing to my life many yellow thoughts.
Like I set my life is not very interesting but I never change it with any person in all over the world.

What has changed in your life lately?
Lately in my life has changed a lot. In former times I sat in home and I watched TV. Since last summer I've started to learn windsurfing. I've had six lessons and I've already learn to go quite fast.
I'm really happy because I've met a very nice boy from my town, called Janusz. He's very nice and intelligent. I've known his for ten weeks and I think I am in love with him.
In August I've been 2 in Hawaii. People in Hawaii are very friendly. Hawaii is a real paradise on Earth.
Later I went to New York. After many castings and TV spots I took part in a TV film. I have been 2 very happy. I came back in Poland.
I've started study and I have just started singing in a music band ''Paradise''. I'm very popular. Of course I'm really happy. For the last year my life has changed very much.

A lot has changed in my life recently. I used to walk to school on foot but since last month I have been driving a grey Ford Mondeo. As a result I have gained weight and I have started wearing size 14. You think that`s a drawback. You`ve probably right to some point. However, owning a car might have greater disadvantages than only growing in size. I`ve been cought breaking speed limit twice while driving with a girl, I`ve crushed on. Imagine that I`ve never felt so misareble in my whole 18-years -old life. Nevertheless, there have also been some good changes in my life, I`ve got rid of my fiancee, and got to know the value of the backseat in my Ford. And one more thing: never have I been so popular with girls. I wonder why?

In my life there have hapened lately a lot . I have gone 9 to Italy.
This was very interesting experiance. I have been in very ineresting places
and I have toured a lot in: Roma, Florencja, Watykan, Neapol.
I have been also in island Capri. In Rome there are a lot reliecs: Coloseum, church Saint Piter, Forum Romanum. When I have a moment free I spent it
in the beach. In Italy was very hot and it had a beatyful weather. Water in the sea was also warm. I have spent 2 in Italy two weeks. I have remember this moment very nice.

During last month I went with my family to Zakopane. We were there for one week. We lived in our friend's house. I lived with my brother in a double room. We usually ate our meals in the restaurant or café but sometimes we ate at home. Our day usually began from a travel to the mountains. It usually took about eight hours. When we got back home before dinner we were always very exhansted. After dinner we rested for a while and after that everyone had different things to do like watching TV or playing the cards. In the evenings we had supper at nine o'clock. When we came back home everyone regreted that our journey lasted only for one week.

I think that the most important thing what has changed in my live was health. And I am writing about my recovery. I don’t have to take medicines any more and that is very important for me.
The second thing what has changed is my school. Now I am in lyceum now and that is my new school. So now I have a lot of learning, because I think that the first year is very important.
And I also have apparatus on my teeth, so I have a little changed my look.
I am also older. Not just in years, but in my mind too. I can do more different things. For example I can be back home later. And I really like that.
I have started to play guitar and I’m more active. I have changed the look of my room, now it is blue and less childish.
I have cought a lot of new experiences. From my holidays, from school and also I understand how very important in my live is my family. They are always with me and they are always helping me, believe me, that is very important for many people, especially for me.
There are also many different things what have changed, but I do not want to talk about it.

It has changed nothing interesting in my life lately. My sister came back to Poland. She has been 2 in the US for nearly four years and
worked there as a domestic help. Her boss was a buisnessman, he owned "DeAGOSTINI"
publishing house. I went to Warsaw to pick up Bozena ( my sister ) from airport. She wanted to visit all family and friends, and I have become 2 her chauffeur. When we have visited 2 our family it has been 2 OK. But when we`ve visited 2 her friends, I was sitting, boring and listening what they were talking about. Usually, we came back home when it was dark.
Now I haven`t got time to be my sister`s chauffeur, because I have to go to school. She has bought a new car but she has been 9 afraid to drive herself when it`s dark, because she has problems with changing lights ( she signal a tum instead of switch dipped lights ).
The weather has changed, it is cloudy and windy now. Lately I have taken care about my sister`s ( diffrent sister )dog - Tija for the weekend.
I`ve been drinking much coffee recently, because when I come back form school I`m very tired and I want to sleep. I don`t know what more I should write.

For the last year my life has changed very much. I am older and I think I am wiser. I go to school and every day I learn something new now.
My brother trains karate, so I can` t thing out any nickname for him. But I` m take pride in him, because he has got yellow belt.
I have got a lot of new friend in my school, because in October I changed classes. I will not be with my best friend Ania in the same classes.
On holiday I was with Ania in her summer hause. We were with us every time and our friendship is stronger. We had nice time. We played tennis, we go to the lake and river. We ate a lot of ice cream and chips. We rade horse.

In September I started new school-year. Everybody and the teachers say: “You must learn very much, because in May you will sit for an examination”. I know, I must learn very much, but I want have free time only for me too. For the last year my life has changed very much.

Honestly, I do not think that for this year my life have changed considerably. I have solved some problems like everyone but it made me only stronger. I have had really good fun with my friends. I spent with them a lot of time in August this year, but I hadn’t so many duties like then.
In September I started to photograph and I really enjoy it and I even started to think about being a photographer in my future although I did not know much about it. But I’m still learning, and it is not only one of my ideas for future.
I have met new people but most of them don’t live in Mragowo, so it’s hard to keep contact with them. I’m really sorry about that because they’re really nice. Of course, we can talk on the phone or write e-mails but it’s not the same as you see the person and you can talk face to face.
One of the happiest things that has happened to me this year is that I have bought Barry – my dog. He’s only six months and is great.
I hope that I growed 1 wise and growed 1up but only a little!

I want to say that a lot of things have changed in my life. First, I finished 1 from gimnazjum. I’m in my new school , I meet new friends. Sometimes it’s a little hard, but generally I like my new environment.
I suffered very much when I’ve lost 2 somebody very important in my life. It was my grandmother. I knew she was very ill and she found her life very hard. It was enormous shock for me when she died. Especially because I had thought nothing like that could have happened. Last the most important thing that has changed in my life is my sister. She is only three months now, but I love her very much. When I found that my mother was pregnant I thought ‘My mom is going to have a baby! Oh, no!’ but now I am happy about my sister.
Except that, nothing special has changed in my life for the last year.

On September I started to learn in third class high school in my town. I dreamed about visit in New York, I always wanted to see the World Trade center. It was 11 of September, when that very sad event happened. I was shocked and my opinion about the world has changed.
That last 9 year changed 1 my world outlook, now I find a lot of things different. I am just older and I have different needs. Now, I am 18 and I know what I want to do in the future. I want to start studies and work in a big corporation. After studies I want to leave Poland and live in the USA. I passed 1 my driving licence, I have my own car and I met 1 a man. He is very important person for me.

What was changed 1 in my life? For the last year nothing special was changed 1 in my life. My parents finally have let me to go to the disco. I have met multitude very interesting people with whom constantly I have contact. I was changing 9 colour of my hair to black and have cut them. I always wanted have a law drive. I finished that course two months ago and my parents give me a car once a week in Saturday evenings. I am 17 now, but I am having temporary identity card now. I am feeling like an adult. I am talking with my best friend again, because I quarreled with her. In this year I am learning English after normal school because I want to pass my matura exam.

One year ago I was in gymnasium. Now, I am in lyceum and I am one year older and I am 16. a few months ago my sister gave birth a child. It was a boy. She named him Konrad. When she was born her husband Jacek came. Two months later we all were in a ball. I met there a lot of great and nice people. Unfortunately, I met a teacher from my gymnasium because she was there with her partner,too. The 27 of July, my second sister got married to Franek, it was the best wedding in my life. Unfortunately a priest did not give me consent because I wanted be my sister’s best woman. One and a half week later I , Arek, Ania, and Jarek went to Greece. I think it is a beautiful country. People are very cultural. There are great discos performed. I think in the future, I will come back there. When we came back I had free one week. Later I went to a new school and I have met there a lot of people, but I am not with my best friend, Karolina. And this is a big minus. The 1 of October my boyfriend went to the army. Last Saturday we had oath. I think that I changed much in last year.

What has changed in my life for the last year?
One year is too short time to change our lifes, I think. That year 9 was 1 for me exceptionally peaceful. In July I had my brithday. Now I’m seventeen years old girl and I’m ordinary teenager. “ What hasn’t changed In my life for the last year?” would be more suitable topic for me. Just little things have changed in my life for the last year. One of these things is that I’m in the third class now. I have got more duties because of that and I’ve got less time to spend with my friends. I have started to go to extra – curricular Germany lessons and I continue my English lessons, also extra – curricular. Other thing which has changed it’s that I have some experience in working and earning a living. I’ve worked as a waitress in small pub in Mrągowo and now I know that living on your own and earning money by yourself isn’t as easy as I thought before. That were the most important things that have changed in my life for the last year. There is one more but it’s just au episode in my life. I have passed my driving – test. The experience connected whit this was very stressful and I think I wouldn’t do his again if I knew that is such stress. These were everything what has changed for the last year in my life. I hope that the next year will be more exciting and my monotonous life will change.

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