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Numer publikacji: 38350
Dział: Języki obce

Intercultural education - lesson plans

CURRICULUM PROPOSAL FOR INTERCULTURAL EDUCATION

an output of the ERASMUS+ project
I CHANGE – INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCES:
HORISONS APPLIED TO NEW GENERATION’S EDUCATION.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction........................................4
Teaching approaches in a multicultural classroom- by the project partners........................................5
Innovative methods,techiniques and tools in teaching........................................19
1.Classroom theatre........................................20
2.Cartoons and comic strips........................................24
3.Debate........................................29
4.Teaching with songs........................................32
5.Film as an innovative and active method of teaching........................................34
6.A classroom skit – a short rehearsed drama........................................38
7.Presentation – a tool of communicative approach........................................41
8.Escape room - popular puzzle-based attractions........................................43
9.New Technology in the Classroom........................................44
PRACTICAL PART- Lesson plans........................................47
1.Theme: Analyzing The Angry Eye by Jane Elliott........................................48
2.Theme: Serial (Bad) Weddings........................................54
3.Theme: Atypical topics : a short play about the most famous spanish stereotypes........................................57
4.Theme: Learning Spanish as a foreign language........................................59
5.Theme: Prejudices, racism, xenophobia and tolerance........................................64
6.Theme: Phobias and extremes: staging a short play about political extremism........................................68
7.Theme: Immigration stories........................................72
8.Theme: Multicultural society (''then and now'' and ''black to yellow'')........................................76
9.Theme: Immigration myths........................................80
10.Theme: Time to flee........................................83
11.Theme: Multiculturalism, languages and nationalities........................................86
12.Theme: A multicultural society – immigration and ethnicity........................................90
13.Theme: Migrations – Let’s talk about refugees........................................96
14.Theme: One extreme to the other........................................102
15.Theme: Human beings / human rights........................................117
16.Theme: Different does not mean the same – Albatros Island........................................136
17.Theme: European me vs the Colonised Stranger. ........................................140
18.Theme: Ali's story........................................149
19.Theme: Refugee crisis in Europe........................................152
20.Theme: What does it mean to be a refugee ?........................................170
21.Theme: Refugee journeys........................................178
Reference list

INTRODUCTION
These days an increasing number of people of different origins and culture is settling down on the old continent. Apart from many advantages of such growing cultural diversity in Europe, this phenomenon brings a negative consequence, which is intolerance. We are in danger of forgetting the lessons of the 20th century when so many were persecuted because of national, ethnic or other divisions. As European society grows more multicultural, our classrooms are naturally becoming more diverse. Therefore, it is vital to teach students as well as teachers, the importance of tolerance. Every nation has its own identity, culture and heritage and we must respect them so that we can become tolerant and open towards one another.
Today’s schools lack teaching resources needed to equip students with knowledge of cultural differences and to build up proper attitude towards various cultures. Teachers themselves have to reconsider their own views concerning multiculturalism. That is why there is an urgent need for teachers to exchange good practices so that they could attain necessary knowledge and work out innovative teaching methods. As a result, they will improve their competences to be a professional teacher in a multicultural classroom. Our Curriculum Proposal which originated as a final output of common work of the four project countries includes lessons plans with accompanying materials and theoretical background. It is a compendium of knowledge for the teachers of European schools on how to teach tolerance in a multicultural classroom. The main aim of the lessons is to raise cultural awareness which is of great importance in today’s increasingly multicultural Europe. The more we know about the others, the greater chances we have to understand and respect the differences between us.
The proposal recommends non-formal education, namely discussions, games, exercises and other activities that will help students recognise, understand and challenge attitudes and behaviour towards examples of intolerance in everyday life. This analytical study’s idea of intercultural education is to help students find out how they interact with people that are culturally distinctive. Today’s teachers ought to fight for equality and tolerance as it is one of the founding principles of the European Union. By exchanging experiences and good practices between teachers in the world we intend to contribute to the creation of a more harmonized approach to the cultural diversity.

TEACHING APPROACHES

IN A MULTICULTURAL CLASSROOM

by the project partners
Reception of immigrant students at IES Mercedes Labrador (Fuengirola, Spain)

In such historical moment, we have important migratory phenomena which affect our schools very directly. Every day, the arrival of immigrant students is more and more frequent, sometimes at the beginning of the normal school year and sometimes when the school year has already started, even at the end of it. So, we have the neccesity to outline a programme to help us to welcome each one of our new students in the warmest way possible.
The immigrant students face a lot of difficulties and sometimes they suffer a hard psychological impact when they lose everything loved and known by them in their country. This difficulties often are:
• They find themselves in an environment which is very different from their own one.
• They do not know the language for their daily life, especially in the school, being it very different from their native language.
• Some of them have very limited economic resources.
• The organisation of their new school may not be similar to their previous school: school timetables, curricular contents, facilities, rules....
• They receive at least two cultural referents, from their school and from their home, which often respond to two different ideas of living and acting.
• Integration difficulties: their classmates often have prejudices and they sometimes do not have friends or they just interact with mates of their own nationality.
• A different academic level: some students have a very low curricular development according to their age. We can even have non-educated students.
In Spain we have general state laws on education which are developed by each autonomous region. Andalusia has a legislative framework which gives a response to the necessities of immigrant pupils, supports a solidary sense in education and stresses the value of interculturality.

So, by Andalusian law, all schools which have a number of immigrant students must develop a programme to favour their access, continuity and promotion withtin the educational system. This programme must include at least the following aspects:
• Reception of inmigrant pupils, supporting their educational process and their integration in the school.
• Learning of Spanish language.
• Keeping the student's original culture, fostering the knowledge and value of different cultures.
Our school, IES Mercedes Labrador, is located in the Costa del Sol (Coast of the Sun), historically an area of tourism and migratory flow. Therefore, from the beginning part of our students is foreign or of foreign origin. We have approximately 600 students, of which about 20% are foreign. Each year, we have about 25-30 different nationalities. There is a number of nationalities whose official language is Spanish (South American countries such as Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina, Ecuador, etc.), and there is a number of nationalities where Spanish is not spoken or studied (Morocco, Pakistan, China, Great Britain, Ucrania, Russia...)
A number of inmigrant students in our school come from socio-familiar contexts wich are in disadvantage, and this situation has consequences on our academic, organizational and social life of our school.
• Great difficulties in learning basic concepts due to not knowing our language.
• Families do not monitor their children learning process.
• Some cases of absenteeism from school.
• Late admission during the school year.
Reception plan for new students
The aims of our plan are the following:
• To create a school environment where the new students and their families feel welcome.
• To make the registration process easier for them.
• To help them to know all the school facilities and spaces.
• To establish a good atmosphere in the classroom and encourage the interrelation between the new student and his/her classmates.
• To foster the feelings of responsibility, empathy and comradeship among the students to support the integration of new classmates.
• To make the inmigrant families feel at ease and perceive the school as a place for integration, where they and their their culture are respected and valued.
• To avoid the tendency to self-isolation of new students when they face a new situation.
• To favour the participation of everybody: students, teachers and families.
• To keep their mother language and culture as much as possible.
The plan process is as follows:
1. First contact of the families with the school will be through the managing team (headmistress and/or head teacher). Communication should be simple and understandable. Some English or French teacher can help with language issues. The family can be informed about timetables, materials neccesary for the classes, textbooks, school's address and telephone number, etc. If there are serious communication problems, we can ask for help from local associations of foreigners. The family will be appointed for a later interview.
2. First formal interview with managing team. The managing team will introduce the family to the tutor and the Spanish teacher (if the student is non-Spanish-speaker). Then they will inform the family about the school aims, and most important aspects of the educational system. They will answer the family's doubts about this. They will gather all the possible information about the student situation: origin, mother language, previous education, legal situation in the country, family members, social situation, etc. They will inform the family about the assigned group of the student, the rules of the school, extracurricular activities, homework, Spanish lessons, etc.
3. The most important criterium to assign a student to a group is his/her age, beacuse socializing is easier among a group of people who are the same age or similar. But we also have to take into account their previous education. Anyway, there will not be more than one year of difference between the student's age and his/her classmates'.
4. All the information taken from the students and their families must be treated carefully and we have to decide which part must be treated as confidential and which part should be shared with the tutor, teachers, Spanish teacher and Orientation department.
5. IN THE CLASSROOM:
a) The tutor will inform the group of students about the new student's origin, pointing out some aspects such as gastronomy, important cities, music, etc.
b) The tutor will take care of the new student and will encourage him/her to introduce their culture to their classmates.
c) The tutor will ask one or two students to help, guide and accompany their new classmate during the first weeks.
d) The tutor and all the teachers will enocurage the group of students to help their new mate and to try to communicate with him/her.
e) During tutorial lessons we will work on interculturality, by organizing handcrafts exhibitions, debates, games, film viewings, lectures, etc. These activities are coordinated and provided by the Orientation Department and the ATAL teacher.
f) The tutor will have meetings with the families to monitor the students progress.
g) The teachers can have meetings with the families to treat aspects related to their subjects.
h) The teachers will make curricular adaptations when necessary and possible.
6. THE LINGUISTIC ADAPTATION TEMPORARY CLASSROOM (Aula Temporal de Adaptación Lingüística, A.T.A.L. in Spanish)
This class is specific for teaching Spanish. It is aimed to all the inmigrant students who cannot speak Spanish or need to improve it. All the students who need to learn Spanish will attend this class during school hours for a maximum of 15 hours a week. So, these students will miss some of their ordinary lessons to attend ATAL lessons. Their ATAL timetable is flexible. So, if the students have a good progress in their learning, they can be promoted to other ATAL group or they can reduce their hours of attendace to ATAL classes. The groups will not exceed 12 students. The official period of permanence in ATAL classes is one school year, but in our school students can attend these classes for more than one year when necessary and if their teachers and families agree. Coordination with the tutor and families is important. Due to the diversity of the students, methodology must be individualized.
Intervention protocol for the admission of non-spanish-speakers students.
1. When the student starts the school year at the beginning, the tutor teacher checks that the student does not have a minimun knowledge of Spanish or has problems with our language. He/she gathers family and student information and reports to the Orientation Department.
2. When the student starts attending school during the school year, the headmistress or head teacher will report to the Orientation Department and ATAL teacher.
3. The Orientation Department requests the ATAL teacher for a language evaluation of the student.
4. The ATAL teacher allocates the student in one of the levels of knowledge of Spanish:
◦ N1, does not speak or write Spanish at all.
◦ N2, speaks and writes Spanish at a low level.
◦ N3, speaks and writes Spanish, but needs to improve.
4. The family, head teacher and tutor are informed about the student's ATAL timetable, group, activities, etc.
5. Each term, the ATAL teacher will give the family and tutor a report about the student's progress.
The a.t.a.l. classroom
The ATAL teacher works on the following items:
• Teaching of Spanish, spoken and written, with a system based on conversation, grammar, vocabulary, reading, etc. and working on the four linguistic skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing). With students who have a higher level, the teacher will help them with difficult language of different subjects, spelling, comprehensive reading, etc.
• Spanish culture and civilization: geography, history, istitutions, etc.
• Academic advising, Spanish education system.
• Cooperation with extracurricular classes of Spanish for foreing students (P.A.L.I. classes, which are carried out in the afternoon, after the school hours, and are provided by the Andalusian government)
• Cooperation with the school in issues related to multicultural coexistence. The ATAL teacher will carry out activities such as decoration of the school and the classroom, international traditional games, intercultural cinema workshop, celebration of important days such as Peace Day, Day of the Book, Day of Children Rights, and one of the most important days in our shcool: Intercultural Day.
Intercultural day
In Fuengirola, we have an important fair during the first weekend of May: The International People Fair (FIP, Feria Internacional de los Pueblos in Spanish) Each year thousands of people take part in this celebration of all the cultures of the world which have presence in our province, Málaga. Here you can taste different gastronomies, watch typical dances, listen to international music, enjoy several street parades with people dressed in picturesque costumes, etc.
Our school is located really close to the fairground, so we can perceive the energy and spirit of this celebration in a very direct way.
One week later, we have our own little fair: Intercultural Day. It is organised by the Orientation Department with the help of the ATAL teacher. They plan a number of activities and all the teachers, students and families in the school take part in them.
During this day, immigrant students are the protagonists. They show us their culture, gastronomy, typical costumes, language, music. We have a parade where all the flags are shown. The families and teachers bring typical food from their countries. We have workshops on handcrafts, dances, painting, etc. And finally, there are several shows which are carried out by the students themselves, or their families, or local associations.
This Intercultural Day is very important for our inmigrant students and their families, as they can experience how the school values and respects their culture, and they always cooperate a lot to make it a great day. In fact, it can be considered as the greatest day during the school year for all members of the school.

Teaching Multicultural classes in Turkey
Our school has adopted a zero tolerance policy to any kind of discriminatory behaviour. Students that offend are often excluded from our school. There are also counselling sessions to help them and for them to understand that there is no place within our school, like in fact in our society, for any form of discriminatory behaviour. At the school level, some of the teachers play the role of counselors and students can easily get in touch with them. We try to make the students understand that everyone is unique as an individual whether it refers to race, ethnicity, gender or religious beliefs. We work with students to provide strategies that allow them to work through the differences in a constructive way and it's what we also do in our classes. We give students the possibility to be an active member of the school by rewarding openness to new and creative approaches to problem-solving.
As for our classes there is a motto 'cooperation above competition'. Using group work broadens students' perspectives, it permits to have different approaches and ideas coming to the surface. Group activities used such as reciprocal teaching permits to make the barriers fall easier. Our job as educators is to provide an education for all of our students ? We should consider other cultures and the cultural background of our students to be an equitable classroom and so an equitable school. One of the key to group harmony is collaborative work, through that students can learn from one another but also talk, laugh, and enjoy one another. One last thing in our classes we have created a safe space for students and it combats marginalization, students know that the teachers supports them. This safe space relies on the zero tolerance policy of our school, it makes the classroom a positive place .We must be tolerant and appreciate each other, in our school we think that to meet so different pupils from varying background, each with their own unique experiences, is a real opportunity.
Guided training
Guided teacher trainers are trained in the schools and institutions of the Ministry for the education of teachers with foreign nationality in their class every year. The training is held in order to increase the pedagogical knowledge and skills related to the education and training services offered by the Ministry of Education teachers who have foreign nationals in their classes and to facilitate the adaptation of the students to the Turkish education system. The trainings are carried out the academics from different universities of our country. Within the scope of training; Contextual Instruction Introduction, Contextual Education Theoretical / Conceptual Framework, Differentiated Instruction for Contextual Education, Creating a Differentiated Learning Environment, Sample Applications in Container and Differentiated Instruction, Measurement and Evaluation in Differentiated Classes, Creating a Safe School / Class, Trauma, Bullying, Violence, Abuse such as Adult Education topics, 86 hours of education through drama, sample applications and activities are performed.
Handbook to teachers
The Ministry of National Education publishes a handbook for teachers with foreign students in the classroom through its official website. In an announcement released by the Ministry of Education, taking place in the world to do emphasis on refugee and asylum issues in our country have drawn attention to the steps which he has taken in this regard, and social developments that have shown in the economic field where in Turkey in recent years, reminded the migration of this situation and would lead to a further increase in the number of refugees was expressed.

Special studies are being conducted for foreign students
The Ministry of Education also released the announcement, the ongoing war in Syria, and there's many people are starting to live in Turkey emphasized that led to the creation of new needs. A future planning in order to meet a large number of refugee children living in Turkey qualified for special education for studies carried out in a press release stated that the educational needs of foreign students was transferred done.
Joint project with UNICEF
In response to these situations, teachers were also notified of the "Training of Teachers of the Ministry of National Education in the Classroom" under the heading "Quality Container Education", which was co-organized with UNICEF, expressing the plans for the development of knowledge and skills about the "Container Education" system including multicultural education principles .
Within the scope of this project, it has been reported that the teachers who have foreign students in the class have developed the pedagogical knowledge and skills related to the education and training services offered to the foreign students and tried to facilitate the adaptation of the foreign students to the Turkish Education System.

Teaching Multicultural classes in France
French system of education in relation to foreigners
A principle of inclusion
"School is the decisive place to develop inclusive educational practices with a view to the social, cultural and professional integration of allophone children and adolescents, through socialization and the learning of French as a second language. Mastery must be acquired as quickly as possible, by taking into account by the school the skills acquired in other areas of education in the French school system or that of other countries, in French or in other languages. .. "
Depending on his level, the student is led by the academic services: towards an educational unit for allophone incoming pupils having been educated in their country of origin, or to a pedagogical unit for non-native speakers who have not previously attended school.
Student already in school
The pupil, already educated in his country of origin, is enrolled in an ordinary class corresponding to his school level, without exceeding an age difference of more than 2 years with the reference age of the class.
The pupil benefits from a large part of the teaching offered in regular classes and an individual schedule. His school schedule must be identical to other students enrolled in the same level.
In schools where the dispersal of students does not allow their grouping into a teaching unit, specific French lessons are organised.
Student not or little educated
The pupil, with little or no schooling in his country of origin and of school age, is welcomed full-time in an educational unit for allophone incoming pupils to learn French. He must acquire the basic knowledge of the cycle of deepening of the elementary school. However, he can take ordinary classes where the command of written French is not essential (music, sports, plastic arts ...).
These are the measures set up by the laws but next to them some schools have added their own specific measures favoring the success of allophone students.
Some schools offer other fields of action to help foreign students:
• NDS (Need Deepening Support, a la carte courses offered every 15 days to students) language support or in subjects throughout the year;
• personalized follow-up (a teacher follows 10 to 15 students for 1h30 per week) and the development of a personal project of success with the educational team;
• the preparation and passage of the DELF (Diploma of French Studies) in schools from level A1 to level B2;
• CTA (Complementary Training Activities, inter-level projects conducted every 15 days by groups of 10 to 15 students at a rate of 4 hours per session) allowing the student to integrate into a group, carry out a project that is important to him while developing language skills,
• IDP(Inter-Disciplinary Projects conducted in Year 11 at a rate of 2 hours per week) allowing the student to work on topics that are dear to him and develop skills in the context of a group work,
• the interdisciplinary work, very frequent in these schools, which allows the student to progress both in French but also in his mastery of disciplinary content,
• the numerical work space (ENT) that allows each user (student, teacher) to work outside the school in optimal conditions and to use resources made available by the teacher,
• the specific work of the oral at the high school radio studio,
• the numerous projects and school and extra-curricular activities offered to the student to enhance the student's culture of origin (for example: the Chinese New Year ) or to develop his knowledge of French culture (theater outings , concerts, writers' meetings, festivals, etc.) as part of the cultural policy of the school.
The proposed measures are regularly evaluated and refined to best meet the needs of foreign students hosted.

Our school is non-selective and the pupils come from a wide range of ethnic backgrounds,religions and cultures. The different faiths and religions within the school and more particularly in ''Religion'' classes allow for some great topics and discussions based on tolerance and respect. It is really nice to have such a diverse range of nationalities and cultures as students bring their different backgrounds and experiences to the classroom. They bring their own knowlegde and practices and customs, and since it's their daily routine, their way to celebrate some religious feasts it 's more vivid and of course more attractive for the other pupils. It's always an opportunity to have conversations and show understanding which really helps build relationships in the classroom. It allows to broaden the pupils' horizons, even if on the spot they don't necessarily become more tolerant for sure it opens doors to open-mindedness, the pupils are always curious to know the others. That's for pupils with another faith, religion but we also have pupils from a diffferent country and sometimes a different language. We then give the students another similar (age/nationality/gender and so on) student to shadow for a few days so they feel more secure and at ease in the school but the newcomers are always immersed in the language; however, we are aware of possible issues so we are attentive and sometimes those pupils are given ''special'' classes , for instance we have some English speaking pupils , in their case English classes are replaced by French ones so they become more familiar with our language. Usually a teacher is in charge of one specific pupil (when we can) or his/her head teacher is playing that role of paying attention and being the referent that pupil can always rely on. An essential step in teaching children to be comfortable with their cultural background and so themselves is to encourage and value their input in a small group of other students, this has to do with the organization of the classroom so when grouping the students, we put the pupils from differing backgrounds together. The multi-cultural classroom provides an opportunity for the pupils from different cultures to bring their experiences, knowledge, perspectives and insights to the learning as often as we can by for instance making them present their country, their culture any time we can. Another specific event which takes place every year at school is at the canteen - meals , food are also part of one's culture – the cook decided a few years ago to organise a ''mutlicultural cooking'' , it lasts a week during which we are proposed meals from different countries , it's also a way to open the door of our school to other cultures.

Teaching Multicultural classes in Poland
Poland is considered a nationally and religiously homogenous state. 97% of the present population declare to be of Polish nationality. Thus Poland is put on one of the first places not only in Europe (for example, in Greece, the ratio stands at 98%, and in Bulgaria – 84%), but also in the world. Additionally in contrast to many European countries, Poland is also characterised by dominant position of one denomination – Roman Catholicism, followed in 2011 by more than 85% of the population.
In Poland, national and ethnic minorities are protected and granted many rights related mainly to their language, education and culture. The Constitution of the Republic of Poland of 1997 provides basic guarantees for Polish citizens who are members of national and ethnic minorities. Another important Act which in greater detail regulates their rights is the Act of 6 January 2005 on National and Ethnic Minorities and Regional Language.
Poland is also a signatory of international agreements of which the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities which is a treaty of the Council of Europe, and the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages are especially important. In addition, national minorities are protected under clauses in bilateral agreements which Poland concluded with all neighbouring countries and many other states.
The Act defines national and ethnic minority as a group that is: ‘identifying itself with a nation organized in its own state’ as the basic and the only element distinguishing national and ethnic minorities and ‘its ancestors have been living on the present territory of the Republic of Poland for at least 100 years’. According to these criteria, the act recognizes 9 national minorities – Byelorussian, Czech, Lithuanian, German, Ormian, Russian, Slovakian, Ukrainian, Jewish and four ethnic minorities Karaim, Lemko, Romani and Tatar and recognizes Kashubian as the only regional language in Poland.
The Act offers the national and ethnic minorities opportunities to maintain their own cultural and linguistic identity, bans discrimination and assimilation. For some of the minorities the right to spell their names and surnames in accordance with the spelling rules of the minority language also in official documents. Furthermore, the Act assures the possibility to use the minority languages in municipal office.
Public schools enable students to maintain their national, ethnic, language and religious identities, in particular, through the study of language and their own history and culture. Students belonging to national and ethnic minorities receive essentially the same education as other children. However, in accordance with applicable law, they may obtain education in their native language or additionally study the minority language, history, geography and culture. The school headmaster is obligated to organise it when minority of parents or students declare interest. The Polish law provides the following possibilities for such situations: schools and preschools with the native language as the language of instruction, bilingual schools and preschools, schools with supplementary education of the native language for members of the minority, interscholastic sections with supplementary education of the native language for members of the minority.
The most popular form of organised minority education is schools with supplementary study of the native language. Education of national and ethnic minorities is financed through the state budget. The main problems encountered in the organisation of minority education are funding shortages (especially for small schools) and an insufficient number of curricula, school textbooks and teaching staff. Moreover, every minority deals with its own particular problems, arising from demographic, geographic, political and historical reasons. Minority organisations are involved in the process of organising minority education. They take active part in writing textbooks and curricula, organising additional activities as well as lobbying to improve the education situation.
The Roma minority is a specific case. There are no schools with the Roma language as the language of instruction and there are no educational facilities with supplementary instruction of that language. Roma education levels are generally very low (some Roma children do not attend school at all and the majority end their education at the elementary level or drop out after completing only a few grades). Constantly, the state has been undertaking activities to improve Roma education such as: training and employing Roma assistants and assistant teachers, organisation of remedial classes, equipping schools with teaching aids, paying for children’s meals at schools, covering the costs of
transportation and insurance, purchasing textbooks and school supplies, organizing interest circles, school celebrations and trips with the participation of Roma children, organising camps and day camps, paying for preschool costs and financing kindergartens.
Polish law also provides some regulations for foreign students who are not members of mentioned above national or ethnic minorities but live in Poland.
Every child that is not a Polish citizen is entitled to additional free classes of instruction in the Polish language held in the school he attends for the first 12 months, not less than 2 lessons per week (in Poland a lesson hour is 45 minutes). The weekly schedule and number of hours is set by the school headmaster in consultation with the entity organising the classes. These classes may take the form of individual or group lessons, depending on the situation in the school. The total amount of additional free lessons in Polish and remedial courses in other subjects can not be greater than five hours per week per student.
In Poland, religious education can be conducted in school, but it is organized by a church or a religious community of a given faith, not by public education authorities. Participation in religious instruction is not mandatory. However, if child participates in these lessons, the grade for the class is listed on the school certificate.
In practice, in all Polish schools lessons in the Catholic religion are available, as it is the most common religion in Poland. Children participate in these classes with parental consent. For children who do not participate in religion classes, the school is obliged to organize another pastime- in practice this is often time spent in the school club-room.
Representatives of other religions may also conduct lessons for pupils who follow them. This happens in areas where it is justified by the number of children of a given faith attending the school. Most often, however, churches other than the Catholic church organize instruction in their faith outside the school, in order to gather all the children of a given faith in one class despite their attending different schools in the area. Information about religion lessons organized outside the school should be available from the school headmaster, if a given religious community has provided this information to local education authorities with a request for its distribution in schools.

INNOVATIVE METHODS,
TECHINIQUES AND TOOLS
IN TEACHING 
The teachers from the four project schools have been discussing the use of some innovative methods of teaching that could be used both in multicultural classes and for intercultural education. Such creative methods are useful and efficient both for students and for teachers. Active and collaborative methods ignite a passion for learning and provide students with the tools they need to succeed in the current world. Let's look at some of the ways where innovation can improve education. The following methods have been used in project activities during short students exchanges and in each of the partner schools as well. These methods are recommended to be used in multicultural classes as useful tools for effective intercultural education.
1.Classroom theatre
CLASSROOM THEATRE is a pedagogical, playful, motivating, transversal and multidisciplinary strategy, which starts from the immersion of a complete group of students in a dramatic project. It aims not only to enhance specific traditional qualities, such as body expression, memory, spatial sense or artistic sensibility, but also to bring the group of students together around a company that belongs to each and every one. In the Classroom Theatre all the participants have to be protagonists and authors because it is flexible and elastic and all opinions are valued.
This Classroom Theatre is not programmed so much to realize a spectacular theatrical premiere, as to be lived and assimilated during the preparation process. The goal is the way to go. It is not a scenic representation -which may not even arrive- but the process that has generated it.
The Classroom Theatre is not a goal, but a means.
Aims of Classroom Theatre
1. General aims:
• To raise self-esteem and self-confidence in students.
• Create a framework of pleasant coexistence between classmates and between them and the teacher.
• To encourage behavior habits that enhance socialization, tolerance and cooperation between colleagues.
• To make students feel the need to submit to a necessary discipline.
• Spread intellectual concerns so that students enjoy studying and researching.
• Make families aware about the educational process of their children.

2. Specific aims:
Get the student to learn to:
• Know their own voice and use words as the noblest means of expression.
• Find in their body (hands, voice, gesture, look, movements) communicative resources.
• Promote reading and correct diction imperfections.
• Accept the problems of other people by assuming those of their characters, as well as their way of speaking and feeling according to their time and condition.
• To be transported, with imagination, to other historical moments.
• Analyze the characters and situations represented.
• To have a critical view of the dramatized facts.
• Know how to collaborate in the preparation of costumes, sets, equipment manipulation, etc.
• To behave properly in a show.
• To know the resources of video recording as a summary of an ephemeral artistic work.
Deliberately none of these objectives is related to the perfection of a theatrical premiere, which may not even arrive, even if it is what students expect. It may be their goal, but not our goal. They are not actors or actresses and, possibly, they will never be. If we struggle to achieve a correct vocalization or the assumption of their character, it is because we consider that oral expression or empathy is the objective of the course to understand another. Thanks to the Classroom Theatre they will get it.
Classroom theatre in our project activities.
During our project, we have used this pedagogical method in two activities:
• Phobias and Extremes, a short play about political extremism which was performed during the first short-term students' exchange in Fuengirola (Spain)
• Atypical Topics, a short pantomime about Spanish stereotypes which was performed in the final event of the fourth short-term students' exchange in Tuchów (Poland)
The aims which we achieved with these activities were:

Phobias and Extremes Atypical Topics
-Students understood some reasons behind current political extremism.
-By playing the role of symbolic characters or as theatrical audience, students reflected on the following terms: political extremism, tolerance, global market or global net.
-Students became aware of the dangerous consequences of overusing mobile phones in human communication.
-Students got more sense of social solidarity towards unfair situations such as poverty, hunger, unemployment, war, etc.
-Students thought over some old or current stereotypes about Spain which are known by more and more people around the world.
-By playing the role of typical characters or as theatrical audience, students understood the difference between, on the one hand, customs and traditions and, on the other hand, stereotypes.
-Students became aware of the negative consequences of using cliches, instead of being seriously concerned about knowing a culture and accepting it.
-Through humour and comic/funny situations students deconstructed stereotypes about Spanish customs, traditions, habits, etc.

Although before it has been said that the main objective of the theatre is not a premiere, our two activities had the performance of the plays in front of an audience as a culmination. This was the climax for our students' work. This happened because our work had to be shown to our partners in the project. For the students, having a performance as a goal made them realize that they had to be disciplined and hard-working. We had a short time to prepare both performances, but if we had had longer time, we would have achieved more aims in a more complete way. Having a fixed date for a premiere made the work not be so relaxed and easy-going as it would have been ideal. Nevertheless, we think that this method was very worthy to teach general matters of theatre and specific questions treated in our project.
Steps to be followed in this method.
• The teacher has to decide the idea to be performed. Will it be an original text written especially for the occasion? Will it be a text chosen from a resource bank which is already published?
• The teacher presents the whole idea to the students and there is a debate about the topic of the play. Students reflect on it and see the importance of the topic.
• There is a general reading of the script, so that the students know it and know the characters involved.
• There is a selection of actors and actresses and the teacher gives them their roles. There can be a casting for this purpose, or there can just be an agreement according to the kind of role and length of the script.
• There is another script reading, but now each student reads their part.
• Students must solve their doubts about pronunciation, word meaning, or anything involved with their part in the play.
• Student who do not have a part or who have a short one will help to prepare music, scenography and costumes.
• There is a series of rehearsals in which students will improve their work and will also contribute with their own ideas to create and build their characters. This step will be carried out many times and will make the play be a living work, changing and evolving constantly.
• There can be a premiere, or not. As we have said before, it is not the main goal for us, but it may be for the students. So, the teacher and the students decide about it. If there is one, students can see a result, and this can be very helpful for them to get more confidence and be proud of their own and their classmates' work.
5. Why is classroom theatre a valuable method for teaching? What advantages does it provide?
Both the application of theatre to other subjects and the subject of Theatre itself, offer a large number of advantages to students who make us consider the importance of these practices. Among them, the following stand out:
• It strengthens personal relationships among peers and with adults, favouring the integral formation of the student as a social being.
• It allows to develop different forms of expression, from language to body movement or music. In addition, pleasure is stimulated by reading and oral expression, perfecting their communicative ability.
• By losing the fear of speaking in public, theatre fosters self-confidence and provides greater personal autonomy, helping the more timid to overcome their fears. In addition, by adopting different roles and characters, theatre is the best tool for the students to show their feelings and ideas, and make public especially what it is difficult to verbalize.
• It develops empathy, as it teaches students to put themselves in the place of other people different from them. By putting themselves in the shoes of different characters, students can experience what they feel in situations they might not have experienced otherwise.
Our mission as teachers is to spread concerns that others -the students themselves, society- will pick up later. With the Classroom Theatre, regardless of long-term results, other immediate results are achieved. Thanks to it, we will see our students evolve spectacularly, we will hear them asking about subjects that did not interest them before, we will observe antagonistic people sitting at the same desk, in the middle of a relaxed atmosphere... and we will feel the pleasure of monitoring worthy works of students on whom, before starting the experience, nobody bet.

2.Cartoons and comic strips
Cartoons and comic strips can be used from beginner level to advanced level for a variety of language and discussion activities.
Comic strips and cartoons are two effective instructional tools to use in class with students from different grades. They are effective because they engage students in meaningful learning experiences where they get to practice key skills such as writing, reading, speaking and communicating.
Why use comic strips in your teaching:
Here are some of the reasons why you might want to include comic strips in your classroom instruction (see the list of sources at the bottom of this post to learn more)
• Comics are fun, interesting and motivating.
• Comics promote a wide variety of skills: cognitive, intellectual, social, and cultural.
• Can be used with students in different school grades.
• Can be used to teach different school subjects.
• Can help students develop higher-order thinking skills (sequencing, predicting, inferring, synthesizing, analyzing, evaluating...etc).
• Enhance students engagement with multimodal texts.
• Make students aware of the multimodal means through which meanings are constructed and communicated.
• Ideal teaching tools for teaching a target language.
• Visually illustrated content is much easier to process, understand and remember.
• Can be used to teach reading, writing, listening, and speaking skills.
Uses of comic strips in class
There are different ways you can integrate comic strips in your classroom. Here is an abbreviated list of ideas we put together based on various sources (see list at the bottom of this post).
• Digital storytelling: students (in small groups or individually) create a narrative storyline and illustrate it with relevant graphics.
• Students use comic strips to visually retell a story they have read.
• You can use comic strips to introduce a topic and have students brainstorm ideas
• Provide students with pre-designed comic strip with missing panels and ask them to fill in the blanks to complete the story. (writing activity)
• Provide students with blanked out comic strip and ask them to write a story based on the illustrated characters. (writing activity, promote predicting skills)
• Use comic strips to raise students awareness to topics such as racism, bullying, digital citizenship...etc.
• Use comic strips in language learning to teach vocabulary, grammar, communication (use of language in contextual situations), writing, and reading.
• Use comics to improve students speaking skills by asking them to act out comics they created. Alternatively you can engage students in oral discussions about the content of the comics.
Cartoons are powerful teaching tools and can:
• Tell a complex story in a few images
• Provide comment and provoke thought on events and issues in the news
• Give an example of vocabulary related to current trends and fads
• Provide easily identifiable characters to form the basis for sketches
• Show culture in action with the ways that men or women are behaving and are expected to behave
• Comment on and illustrate a whole range of issues like racism, teenage relationships, sexism, ageism, family relationships.
Word of warning: The language used can sometimes be too colloquial and referential for lower levels to cope with. Choose your cartoons and comic strips with care.
Suggestions for activities:
1. Activities for exploiting cartoons
Exploring the theme of humour: take one cartoon which depicts absurd situations. This can be a Gary Larsen cartoon or one of those greeting cards using a black and white photo and a funny sentence which gives a strange twist.
Ask students to work in groups and get students to discuss:
• What does the cartoon mean?
• Why is it funny?
• What techniques are used to make it funny?
Their own sense of humour and national tastes in humour
Use a cartoon to introduce the idea of humour and culture. Take a selection of cartoons and ask groups to decide what each one means and if they think they are funny. Vote on the funniest cartoon. Ask the students to discuss:
• What types of method are used to make us laugh?
• Do people laugh at ordinary situations in their country?
• Are political figures made fun of?
• Do they use satire or slap stick humour?
• What are the most popular types of humour on TV?
This can be developed in to a lesson on jokes and the types of joke that they find funny.
Dealing with issues
• Take one or more cartoons which comment on an issue in the news. A national newspaper or 'The Private Eye' are good sources. Use a cartoon like this to introduce the topic and brainstorm vocabulary
• Use a selection of cartoons to discuss the different parts of the issue. Take an issue like disciplining children or dealing with teenagers. Ask if they agree with the cartoonists’ opinion.
• Use a cartoon like this to end a lesson or series of lessons on a social or political issue. Ask students to write a caption for the cartoon. You can prepare them for this by a match the caption to the cartoon exercise.
2. Activities for using comic strips
• Tell the story
• Cut up the pictures and get students to re order the story. Make this more difficult and challenging linguistically by giving separate frames to each student in a group and ask them to not show the pictures until they have arrived at an order through describing the pictures.
• Remove the last picture of a cartoon and ask students to think of an ending. Artistic students may like to draw the last frame. Vote for the best ending.
• Remove the sentences under each frame and either ask lower levels to match them to each frame or ask them to write the sentences that tell the story. Lower levels might need vocabulary prompts on the board.
Make the comic strip
• Give students a comic strip with a short paragraph for each frame. Ask students to reduce each paragraph to one sentence for each frame. Compare their efforts to the original. With higher levels you can discuss techniques of summarising your message.
• Give students a story. Groups confer to guess what might be missing. Give them the comic strip version. They must fill in the blanks in their written story by using the comic strip pictures. Then ask them to think of speech bubbles for the comic strip. This might also include thought bubbles for characters.
• Remove speech bubbles from a comic strip. Cut them up and give out. Ask them to order them and to imagine what the story or situation is. Groups can act out their version for the class. Then give them the comic strip and ask them to see if their speech bubbles fit the story there.
• When you use a short story with younger learners ask them to make the story into a series of 4 pictures. This can be a group effort or a whole class task with each group drawing one part. If you use a black and white comic strip allow time for younger learners to colour their versions.
• Make an information gap using a photocopied comic strip. Blank out details or change what characters are saying. Make sets which are coloured differently. Set up spot the difference activities using the comic strip and then lead in to story telling and acting out the comic strip.
3. Exploit characters
Make a comic strip character
• Look at different comic strip heroes. Get suggestions from the class of names: Superman, Bart Simpson, Asterix, Tin Tin or others. Describe popular characters for their age range in the UK today. Encourage the students to tell you about local comic book characters. Ask them to describe one character in pairs.
• What makes this character special?
• What can they do? Have they got special powers?
• What are their weaknesses?
• What do they look like?
• What are their special interests or ambitions?
• Then ask each group or pair to choose a favourite character and make a simple situational dialogue which is typical for them.
• Ask students to work in pairs or groups to invent their own character. If appropriate students can draw the character. Give the character special powers, a name and a special mission.
• The final stage is to tell an everyday story involving the character.
Discuss comic strip characters - higher levels
• Many popular comic strips in the national press are used to challenge stereotypes and criticise discrimination. You can exploit these aspects of the stories to introduce lessons on these issues in a less formal way.
• Many comic strip characters are seen in situations based on misunderstandings. Exploit these features of communication break down to discuss how characters speak to each other and what they might say. Devise role plays based on these comic strips to challenge more advanced learners. Get them to act out the next sequence in the story.
Exploit short sequences for sketches and improvisations.
• Choose a key situation which would involve language students might need to practice, such as agreeing with opinions, asking permission or saying you are sorry.
• Use a sequence from a cartoon with the sound off so students describe what is happening, imagine what is being said and can then use the sequence to improvise a sketch. Listen to the real sketch at the end.
3.Debate
Decades of academic research have proven that the benefits that accrue as a result of engaging in debate are numerous. Debate provides experiences that are conducive to life-changing, cognitive, and presentational skills. In addition, through debate debaters acquire unique educational benefits as they learn and polish skills far beyond what can be learnt in any other setting.
At the very least, debate helps learners to see the power of deploying rational, reasoned arguments and compelling evidence in action. It enables them to elucidate their standpoint through utilizing rhetorical eloquence. It instills in debaters a great sense of poise and confidence. It teaches them the skills of researching, organizing, and presenting information in a compelling fashion.
Aims of classroom debate:
• Improve speaking skills
• Enhance cooperation
• Develop one's critical thinking skills
• Develop one's personality
• Develop one's effective way of communication and interaction.
Advantages of classroom debate:
• Gaining broad, multi-faceted knowledge cutting across several disciplines outside the learner's normal academic subjects.
• Increasing learners’ confidence, poise, and self-esteem.
• Providing an engaging, active, learner-centered activity.
• Improving rigorous higher order and critical thinking skills.
• Enhancing the ability to structure and organize thoughts.
• Enhancing learners’ analytical, research and note-taking kills
• Improving learners’ ability to form balanced, informed arguments and to use reasoning and evidence.
• Developing effective speech composition and delivery.
• Encouraging teamwork.
A classroom debate step by step
The goal of the lesson is to teach students how to listen, value, and address an opposing viewpoint. A secondary goal of the lesson is to teach students how to find common ground and reach consensus on difficult, divisive issues.
Step 1:
The teacher should choose a topic for the class debate.
Warm Up
As students enter the classroom, the question “What is your opinion on [the topic chosen by the teacher]?” should be written on the board. The teacher should afford students a few minutes to think of and write down their pros or cons about the topic.
Step 2:
On the board the teacher has created three columns one for the pro side, one for the con side, and one for any students who don’t want to engage in the debate. This becomes the panelist to whom the sides will argue and keeps the instructor neutral and free to facilitate the debate.
Step 3:
Ask students to come up to the board and write their name in column of the side they wish to join and debate (Yes, friends will stick together, but that is okay).
Step 4:
Divide the pros on one side of the classroom, the cons on the other, and the panelist across the top of the classroom, with an empty space in the middle (desks and chairs around are moved to make room).
Step 5:
Explain the rules of the debate to the students.
a.Listen to the other side with an aim at understanding their point of view.
b.Take good notes. Use credible sources for evidence.
c.No shouting, no degrading remarks, no insults.
Step 6:
Give students 10-15 minutes to choose the top three reasons they believe what they believe about the topic selected. Ask them to use their phones or computers to find and provide evidence to support their claims.
Step 7:
Each side shares their top three reasons. Each side takes notes as they listen. Panelist and/or opponents may ask questions for clarification or about evidence that is provided.
Step 8:
Each side researches the evidence provided and attempts to rebut it with counter evidence.
Step 9:
Each side is allowed time to advance their rebuttal and try to convince the opposing side to
change sides, or for the panelists to join their side.
Step 10:
After both sides have rebutted the opposing argument, ask the panelists and group members if they wish to change sides.Allow students to comment about why or why not they wish to do this.
Step 11:
Ask both sides if during the course of the debate there was any area of common groundthat seem to emerge.
Step 12:
Explore and encourage class to find the areas of common ground and see if they can develop an alternative argument in which they can all agree.

4.Teaching with songs
Over years, songs have been reflecting the political, cultural and social background of societies as well as the evolution of language. This is one of the many reasons why they are as valuable as many other authentic documents which can be brought in a class. Thanks to songs a teacher can manage to conciliate his educational objectives - linguistic, cultural or both - with his students' musical tastes. What makes music such a great teaching tool is its universal appeal, connecting all cultures and languages. This makes it one of the best and most motivating resources in the classroom, regardless of the age or background of the learner. Song lyrics can be used in relating to situations of the world around us, songs have always been used as vehicles of an untold number of causes. They’ve expounded on pollution, crime, war and almost every social theme or cause.
Aims of classroom songs:
• Improve listening comprehension and speaking skills
• Create a safe and accepting learning environment for students
• Encourage critical thinking
• Strengthen intercultural awareness
Advantages:
• Students gain understanding of and insight into a wide range of cultures by singing their songs and listening to their music.
• Improvement of understanding, oral comprehension skills since a variety of new vocabulary can be introduced to students through songs. Songs are almost always directed to the native-speaking population so they usually contain contemporary vocabulary, idioms and expressions.
• Improvement of communication skills since students must talk to one another and discuss their ideas. Such open communication builds trust and security because students must feel safe so as to express ideas and opinions.
• Development of social skills (students are required to work together, which means that they must communicate with one another and spend time together).
• Songs strongly activate the repetition mechanism of the language acquisition device.
A classroom ‘’song’’ step by step
• Before starting the teacher must carefully examine what he wants his class to learn in the lesson.
• Then he has to think about the language level of his class. The language level of the class will determine not only which songs can used, but also what other activities – such as games or written exercises –can be used to develop the lesson. Lower levels will become extremely frustrated with fast-delivered lyrics, for instance, while simple repetitive lyrics might not be interesting for more advanced-level learners.
At last, the teacher:
• Decides on the topic or theme of the song, for example, tolerance.
• Divides the class into small groups accordingly (or allow the students to choose their own group members).
• Has the students work on the song together.
Some sample instructions to follow for making a song the focus of your class
1.Listen to the song or as an alternative, the teacher can show a video clip if he has one. The teacher asks his students if they’ve heard it before, and don’t overload them with tasks at this point; simply let them enjoy the music.
2. Ask some questions about the title.
Such questions tend to work really well as conversation starters, so group three or four learners together and then get feedback from each group on their thoughts. If the teacher thinks it would help, he can make this the first step, i.e., before the initial listening. Alternatively, prior to having listened to the song the teacher can teach a couple of words and give a simple task for the first listening.
3.Get students work in pairs to predict words before playing the song. The teacher can also insert extra words which students then cross out as they listen.
4.Listen to the song again, this time with lyrics.
This time, the teacher should give students the chance to read the lyrics of the song. At this point the teacher can make a lyric worksheet as a gap fill; students fill in the gaps as they listen.
5.Listen to the song again and while they listen, the students can possibly highlight unknown words for later discussion.
6.Focus on vocabulary, idioms and expressions.
Go through the meanings, illustrating with other examples if necessary. Songs often serve as really good contexts for phrases and idioms, but it’s good to make sure that the meaning is clear. As with grammar, years of misunderstanding can come to light in this way.
7.Round things off with some creativity.
Creativity is an important part of maintaining motivation but it shouldn’t be limited to the teaching approach. Depending on the factors highlighted in the first part of this post (age, language level, cultural specifics, etc.), the teacher might want to try finishing things off with an activity that stimulates creative thought. Here are a few examples of things a teacher can do to get the creative juices flowing:- Write another verse of lyrics, maintaining the same mood and style as the original. This can be done individually or in groups. These new lyrics can be presented to the rest of the class. Perhaps several groups can work on this to come up with a completely new set of lyrics for the whole song.
• A song tends to give the perspective of the singer. Write a response (this can be a paragraph, i.e., not necessarily in lyric form) from the point of view of the person the song is being sung about, or any other protagonist.
• Have the learners plan a music video for the song. In groups they decide the location, the characters, and what happens. Then each group explains their idea to the rest of the class and the learners vote on the best one. The results can be surprising, as they frequently come up with an interpretation that hadn’t even occurred to you.
• Write a diary entry for a character in the song. Get learners to examine the thoughts and feelings that inspired the story being played out in the lyrics.
5.Film as an innovative and active method of teaching
General aims:
• Developing skills to acquire knowledge of film/cinema perceived as a cultural text, coexisting with other cultural texts.
• Developing skills allowing for conscious, critical, targeted, and competent reception of a film text.
• Developing the ability to create original movie texts.
• Recognition of educational potential in the film text, creating opportunities for correlation with other cultural texts, building contexts and cultural topoi.
• Recognizing the educational potential in the movie text, allowing for the critical implementation of a wide variety of educational problems.
• Shaping attitudes of conscious and competent participation in cultural life through the acquisition of cultural competences.
• Shaping the skills of cooperation in a group through the implementation of projects.
• Developing skills to assess and self-evaluate your own knowledge and skills.
• Creating opportunities for self-fulfilment - adjusting requirements and degree of the tasks difficulty both for the gifted and the weak.
• Developing and implementing responsibility for decisions taken and tasks entrusted and performed.
• Developing the right attitudes and interpersonal relations through the ability to work in a team.
• Shaping attitudes of tolerance and acceptance for the Other and Others and for different attitudes, actions, views and opinions.
Specific aims:
• Developing skills to use modern technology tools for educational purposes.
• Stimulating students' interest in film / cinema.
• Percepting a film as a text of culture and a work of art.
• Acquiring, shaping and developing the perception skills of film text.
• Percepting a film as a technical and technological invention, a subject of evolution in time.
• Acquiring the skills of targeted analysis and interpretation of the film as an autonomous text of culture, which is in correlation with other texts and works of art.
• Getting to know film genres and genres.
• Developing the ability to edit shorter and longer forms of speech related directly or indirectly to the film (report, review, note, characteristics, article, column, essay, essay, invitation, announcement, description, story, blog, voice in the discussion, diary, summary, diary, event plan).
• Improving the ability to collect, select and use information.
• Acquiring basic information in the field of media and interpersonal communication.
• Shaping responsibility for spoken and written words and awakening respect for its recipient.
• Educating the skills of group work, assigning roles and fulfilling assigned duties.
• Understanding the techniques of self-presentation and presentation.
• Publishing students’ texts on educational film portals and websites of public institutions.
• Participating in meetings with filmmakers and actors.
• Developing the ability to use ICT skills for educational purposes.
• Getting acquainted with rhetoric and techniques of public speaking.
Expected achievements:
• Acquisition of film competencies regarding perception and creation of a film.
• Knowledge and understanding of film terminology and its practical use in the process of perception of film art and in the space of its creation.
• Conscious and active participation in cultural life.
• The ability to consciously choose valuable cinema.
• Forming taste of film.
• The ability to write oral and written forms of expression.
• The ability to work in a team and for the team.
• Observing the rules of appropriate interpersonal relationships.
• Knowledge of legal principles regulating the use of products of other creators.
Methods of working with a film:
It seems necessary to use the methods of “giving”, thanks to which the student "gets equipped" with film knowledge necessary to understand the specificity of the film message; the form of communication of this content must be attractive to the student and therefore using the tools of modern technology seems obvious.
Examples of “giving” methods: lecture, mini lecture, teaching conversation, talk, lecture, description, anecdote, reading, explanation, targeted work with the text of culture, screening of the film combined with the experience.
In order to implement this pedagogical innovation, it is necessary to use active methods that will make the student not only a passive participant in the educational process, but also, and perhaps above all, an active creator.
Thanks to the methods that activate the student's work, the process of acquiring knowledge and skills in the field of film education will be effective in the content of the message and effective in the form of a message.
Active/activating methods: Oxford debate, point discussion, panel discussion,
memory map, method of the main text , "pieces of cake", poster, decision tree, fish skeleton, mental map, association map, conceptual map, pyramid of priorities, metaplan, "snowball" technique, brainstorming, observation, case study.
Among many active methods used in a classroom environment we can use the method of a school project, including a film project.
Project method: educational film project.
Film in the core curriculum of general education is defined as one of the texts of culture, equivalent to other cultural texts, such as literature, music, art, painting. Therefore, there is a need for teachers to use film text for teaching purposes, as well as for educational purposes included in the school's educational program.
Analysing the core curriculum of general education, it is noted that program content relating directly or indirectly to the film occurs at every stage of education, from primary school through middle school to upper secondary school.
Two perspectives for working with a film at school.
-Perspective 1 - A student as a recipient of film text ("in front of the screen").
-Perspective 2 - Student as the creator of the film ("behind the camera”)
A methodical algorithm of film work at school, which includes four film reception activities
1. A conscious reception of the film.
2. Critical reception of the film.
3.Targeted film reception.
4. Competent reception of the film.

The level of film reception in which you can indicate:
• Level 1. The level of emotions.
• Level 2. The level of intellect.
• Level 3. The level of axiology.
• Level 4. The level of reflection.

6. A classroom skit – a short rehearsed drama
A skit can present or interpret a situation for a group to discuss and is a good way to make students teach one another. Students can role-play different situations, other classmates watching can comment afterward and further discussion is encouraged. It differs from a role-play though because it usually involves a fully developed situation. Skits can be addressed to current social issues like: lack of tolerance, racism, xenophobia, stereotypes.
Aims of classroom skits:
• Improve speaking, writing and acting skills
• Enhance cooperation
• Create a safe and accepting learning environment for the students
• Encourage critical thinking
• Strengthen intercultural awareness
Advantages of classroom skits:
• Development of individual responsibility (students are each responsible for a particular part of the skit production as well as a contribution to the other parts. If they do not perform their individual job, or contribute to the remaining tasks, then the skit will not be successful as a whole).
• Development of positive interdependence (students work together and rely on the other members to produce a skit. Each student may have a specific job, but the students must communicate with one another, and eventually the students must cooperate, e.g. to read the play, practice parts, set up the props, and put on the production. A single student is not responsible for the whole production).
• Development of social skills (students are required to work together, which means that they must communicate with one another and spend time together).
• Development of face-to-face interaction (students need to work as a group to develop a skit. They need to talk in order to develop all of the separate parts. They are also required to practise their individual parts in front of each other).
• Improvement of communication skills (students must talk to one another and discuss their ideas for the skit, problems they may be having, and how the progress is going on each of their individual parts. Such open communication builds trust and security because students must trust their group members and feel safe so as to express ideas and opinions).
• Sharing aims (students work together on one project. Although each member has their own part, each job is a small part of the larger project. The students as a group have the same aim of performing a given skit).
A classroom skit step by step
• Before assigning the skits, the teacher is advised to create a hand-out featuring suggestions on what the students should consider when they are developing their skits and what they might watch for while viewing the skits.
Then, the teacher:
• Decides on the topic or theme of the skits, for example, “A typical day of an immigrant in a foreign country.”
• Decides how many skits he/she wishes to have, and divides the class into small groups accordingly (or allow the students to choose their own group members).
• Has the students work on the skits together, including every member of their groups in the process (either as actors, directors, or writers)
• Explains to the students the responsibility of each role. Students can have more than one role. All group members will most probably contribute to the writing of the skit, with one person taking notes. A formal “director” may or may not be needed for short skits; group should agree on the action and timing of the skit.
• Decides on a day and time for presenting the skits. Often the planning and the acting out can take place on the same day or in the same class period. If more elaborate or more complex skits are wanted, a few minutes for practice for two or three days should be provided before the planned day of presentation. Students should be provided with an area to perform the skits at that time.
Some sample instructions to follow:
• Put a sheet of paper with a topic of discussion on the board (e.g. “A typical day of an immigrant in a foreign country”).
• Choose a volunteer to read this topic out loud.
• Make students act out different living situations in a foreign country (encourage students saying: “We are going to act out skits that demonstrate how our life might look like in a foreign country”, “After each skit we will decide what we learned from each example acted out in the skit”, “We’ll need a volunteer to write down our comments on the sheet of paper”).
• Choose a volunteer to write down the students’ comments.
• Hand out a printed sheet with the directions for each skit.
• Choose groups to act out each skit.
• Dismiss the students and tell them to develop and practise their skits.
• When enough time has passed, gather the students back in the large group and say e.g. “I will choose one group at a time to act out its skit. When the group has finished, we will discuss what was demonstrated”
• Invite other students to comment on the concepts they observed.

Once some documents about one topic have been studied the teacher tells the pupils they are going to work in groups (depending on the topic it can be groups of 2 or 4) and imagine and play a skit related to the topic. They have to reuse the voc. They have learnt as well as the grammar 'item' if some have been done. For example if a lesson about ''encounters'' is done in which different forms of meetings have been seen, such as friends - lovers – an unknown ,etc... The pupils have to create a situation in which they act a kind of meetings.

7.Presentation – a tool of communicative approach
The ability to successfully present oneself can be one of the most important tools a person should have these days. In the project-based learning, students make presentations all the time for various purposes. Presentations usually occur at the end of lessons and focus on a particular language or skill area. They are a kind of freer practice since students should feel relatively confident about what they are going to say in order to make a presentation in front of their classmates. That is way, before the actual presentation is made, students should be given a lot of controlled or semi-controlled practice activities, such as; gap filling, drills, information swaps.
Characteristics of a good presentation
• Clear structure
• Easy to follow
• Presenter is enthusiastic
• Presenter is not monotonous
• Presenter makes eye contact
• Presenter uses appropriate body language
Advantages of the ability of making presentations
• Students practise the language areas (vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation, discourse) as well as language skills (speaking, reading, listening, writing).
• By focusing on a particular language point or skill, the presentation is a very practical way to revise and extend a given topic in a pair or group work.
• Students build confidence, they can express and communicate their ideas clearly, which is one of the most crucial skills in the world of work.
• Students have an opportunity to challenge and expand their understanding of the topic by having others ask questions.
• Having completed the project, a presentation is a channel for students to share with others what they have learned.

Planning a presentation step by step
• Revise a key language area/vocabulary.
• Provide an exemplary presentation (e.g. by a teacher).
• Provide students with a transcript or an outline of a proper presentation (greeting, introduction, maim points, conclusion).
• Focus on linking words/body language.
• Put students into groups and make them write down the aims.
• Make students decide who is going to say what and how.
• Make students prepare visuals.
• Make students practise at their tables.
• Make students deliver their presentations in front of their classmates.
• Take notes for the later feedback ( teacher’s assessment – as a teacher you need to take notes for feedback). You can film the presentation and then discuss the video individually or with the whole group. You can also discuss the presentation generally with the whole class pointing to the best parts of it, analyse the worse points and suggesting the ways to improve it).
Notes to consider preparing students for making a presentation:
It is important students:
• Plan and deliver the presentation in groups first so as to increase their self-confidence (students may need support from each other before, during and after the presentation).
• Know the aims of the presentation (e.g. to inform or raise awareness of an important matter, to persuade people to do something or to demonstrate public speaking skills in a first or second language).
• Answer the following questions: Why are you making the presentation? What do you want people to learn? How are you going to make it interesting?
• Stand close to people who are chatting and try to talk “through” the chatter (by means of demonstration) and stop talking if chatter continues.
• Ask for the audience attention (“Can I have your attention, please?”).
• Set the audience an observation task (assessed before by the teacher).
• Limit the amount of time spent on preparing visuals.
• Give feedback to each other (peer assessment – the other students who are listening should also actively take part in the presentation. They should think of questions and comments for the speaker. The teacher can give them a task to do while listening, e.g. they can write down one thing they like about the presentation and one thing they consider the speaker has to work on).
• Assess themselves (self-assessment).
8. Escape room - popular puzzle-based attractions
• Smart and engaging fun while learning English grammar and vocabulary
There’s something thrilling about being transported into a new setting and being forced to find your way out. The students get a number of language puzzles to solve within a time limit. These puzzles allow them to revise or learn new vocabulary or grammar structures in a very engaging way. They learn English, acquire entrepreneurial skills and have fun at the same time.
• Developing problem- solving skills
Students are locked in a room and have got a series of puzzles to solve so that they could win the game and get out of the room. Students have to think fast using logic and context clues in order to progress.
• Getting the skill of working in a team
The way escape rooms are formulated requires either a large team or two smaller, separate teams to work together to solve the puzzle.
Escape rooms promote teamwork by offering multiple puzzles. Without working together, they’ll be impossible to solve.
• Learning creativity
Escape rooms let students focus on their creativity to get through the different puzzles.
Some of the puzzles may not look like puzzles, even after the students inspect them
This requires the students to use their creativity to discover how the puzzle’s meant to be solved.
• Learning how to focus
Students can improve their focus, mainly because of the time limits imposed on teams in the rooms. They only have a certain amount of time in which to solve the puzzle.
• Goal- minded activity
Escape rooms help you foster proper goals by setting smaller ones throughout the challenge. When they reach the final stage, it’s highly rewarding.
This is a great tactic to instill in students. If you set goals and work toward them, you’ll be rewarded.
Escape rooms can foster good goals and team-building, along with promoting focus and creativity. They’re a fantastic educational supplement not only in learning a language but for every single school subject.
9. New Technology in the Classroom
There's quite a bit of evidence that technology, when used in the right way, helps students learn. Technology, such as tablets, isn't only useful for absorbing knowledge; it helps with communication as well. Teachers and administrators use such devices to send materials and information to students and parents. Students hand in homework and term papers online and can access educational applications and programs to further assist with learning.
Here are some of the clear benefits of using technology in the classroom:
• It makes learning interesting and engaging, especially for younger generations raised on the latest technology.
• It allows for faster and more efficient delivery of lessons, both in the classroom and at home.
• It reduces the need for textbooks and other printed material, lowering long-term costs incurred by schools and students.
• It makes collaboration easier. Students, teachers, and parents can communicate and collaborate more effectively.
• It helps to build technology-based skills, allowing students to learn, early on, to embrace and take advantage of the tools technology offers.
Finding Innovative Applications of Technology
While technology, in and of itself, does not always spur innovation in the classroom, there are countless innovative ways to use technology to better teach and engage students. Here are some examples:
• Mobile Technology – Smartphones and other mobile devices are increasingly used in education. Mobile apps let teachers conduct digital polls, enhance verbal and presentation skills, and incorporate technological skills with core competency lessons.
• Assisting Special Needs Students –is especially useful for students with learning disabilities. For example, phonetic spelling software helps dyslexic students and others with reading problems to convert words to the correct spelling. Some students are visual learners, while others are verbal or auditory learners. Technology allows teachers to individualize lesson plans to different students and their unique styles of learning.
Selected websites and applications:
Quizlet, Kahoot, Quizzizz
These are free websites providing learning tools for students, including flashcards, study and game modes. A teacher can use on every single stage of a lesson, i.e. introducing new vocabulary or grammar structures, practising them in an active and collaborative way and also for a revision and testing.
Ideas for usage:
• Using games and quizzes during the lesson
• Creating your own sets of vocabulary, mems, tests
• Adding images- record sounds for pronunciation practice
• Assigning online homework for students

Other free websites for organizing teacher’s work: the following websites offer a wide range of tools for enriching the teacher’s workshop and making lessons more engaging for students.
• Plickers- a tool for creating interactive quizzes without using mobile devices
• learningapps.org-a tool for creating applications to be used at home or in the classroom on interactive boards/ebeam
• classtools.net- a tool for creating applications and other useful gadgets such as: audience soundboard, timers, connect 4, QR Hunt Generator, Random name Picker or Dustbin Game
• vocaroo.com- a tool for recording and sending sound files which is very useful idea for pronunciation practice and online homework for students.. The ideas for assigned homework are: recording a story told by a student, describing a picture, answering given questions, recording an interview made by students.
• fotobabble.com- a tool for recording and sending video files, which can be used similarly as vocaroo.com
• padlet- a tool for creating Internet files like a class account, links, images and some educational materials collected by the teacher
• film-english.com- ready made educational materials based on videos, ready- made lesson plans, hand-outs, ideas for discussion etc.
• lyricstraining.com- a collection of tracks together with lyrics with gaps, that serves as a task for a student to be done at home for vocabulary and listening practice or as a challenging contest idea in the classroom

PRACTICAL PART
Lesson plans

1.Theme: ANALYZING THE ANGRY EYE BY JANE ELLIOTT
Aims:
- By viewing and discussing the documentary, students will understand the following terms: discrimination, prejudices, stigmatization, persecution, sterotype.
- Students will understand the reasons behind discrimination and the mechanism of discrimination.
- Students will reject stereotypes in relations with other people.
- Students will be tolerant towards other people’s distinctiveness.

STAGE AND AIMS TIME PROCEDURE SKILLS PATTERNS OF INTERACTION MATERIALS

WELCOME

- to start the workshop
2 min

Teacher welcomes students, asks how they are
speaking
Teacher-students
Students-teacher
---
Stage 1
WARMER

- to introduce vocabulary related to the topic

8 min
Teacher writes terms connected with the film subject and asks Ss about them.

• What is discrimination?
• What is stigmatisation?
• What are stereotypes caused by?
• What are the causes of persecution?

speaking
Teacher-students
students-teacher

whiteboard
Stage 2
INTRODUCTION TO THE FILM

-to provide background about Jane Elliott´s experiment
-to get ready to watch the film 10 min
Teacher gives out worksheet about the film.
T asks Ss about Jane Elliott:
Do you know who Jane Elliott is?
Why is she well-known?
Can anyone tell us about her experiment?

The teacher introduces the subject of the film by explaining the idea of Jane Eliott’s experiment.Before watching the film, the teacher asks the students to pay attention to the mechanism of how discrimination is created. The students are asked to pay attention to the behaviour and feelings of the people who take part in Jane Elliott’s experiment of being stigmatised because of the eye colour.

Speaking
reading

Teacher-students
students-teacher
teacher-students

Worksheet
Stage 3
VIEWING THE FILM

-to watch the film and comment on some aspects of it 40 min

28 min (film)

12 min
(discussion)
Teacher plays The Angry Eye film and pauses it following the guide provided in the worksheet.
There are six points to discuss.
Students are encouraged to answer the questions in the worksheet and teacher elicits debate about the ideas presented in the film.

Listening
speaking

Teacher-students
student-student

Interactive whiteboard

film

worksheet

Stage 4

AFTER FILM DEBATE
- to reflect on the film 5 min
Teacher elicits discussion after the film, based on the following questions:
• How did you feel while watching the film, describe your emotions
• What is the film about?
• What does the film show (situations, problems, phenomena etc.)?
• How did the discriminated people feel, what emotions did you observe?

Speaking

Teacher-Students

---
Stage 5
SMALL GROUPS DISCUSSION

- to work out the “diagnosis” of school discrimination 20 min
Students are divided into small international groups (4-5 Ss) and they look for answers to
the questions listed below (teacher writes them on the board). They compare their school experiences,
observations and reflections from their own countries and confront them with what
they have seen and experienced while watching the film.
• Who ( what group/s of people) is the subject to persecution?
• Why are some people persecuted?
• In what way are they persecuted?
• How do the persecuted feel?
• How can we prevent such persecution?
The groups present the result of their work to others. They exchange ideas between
groups, choose common ideas, draw conclusions and in this way they create „The
diagnosis of discrimination in a school”.
The conclusions are written on the board.

Speaking
Writing

Student-student

Worksheet

Whiteboard
Stage 6
CONCLUSIONS

-to reach some basic conclusions about racism and discrimination
5 min

Teacher asks these questions to students to draw conclusions from this workshop:
• What have you found out?
• What have you experienced and understood?
• What am I going to do with this experience?

speaking

teacher-students

---

WORKSHOP ABOUT RACISM AND DISCRIMINATION
JANE ELLIOTT: THE ANGRY EYE

The Angry Eye is a short film which features Jane Elliott conducting her Blue Eyed/Brown Eyed exercise with college students.
Jane Elliott was a third grade teacher in Riceville, Iowa when she developed the Blue Eyed/Brown Eyed exercise to teach the effects of racism. She began this work in response to the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Featured in television documentaries and training videos, Ms. Elliott has since repeated the exercise with dramatic results in many different settings.
This exercise demonstrates that racism is a learned response and that education and awareness are the solutions to discrimination.
We are going to watch the video and you should focus on the following so that you can contribute to the discussion afterwards:
• The behavior and reflections of the students in the blue-eyed group who are discriminated against
• The behavior and reflections of the students in the brown eyed ‘superior’group
• Jane Elliott’s role throughout the exercise

GUIDE FOR DEBATE ON THE ANGRY EYE
• JANE ELLIOTT
• Jane Elliott establishes a microcosm of a racist society. She gives the blue-eyed students the opportunity to experience the kind of the treatment regularly given to people of color and others who are considered ‘different’. Who/what sets the rules for us in society?

• LEAH (white female student who had left her pencil and paper in her bag)
• 'Perception is everything' says Jane. Why?
• What is Leah learning through this exercise?
• What is the effect of being a target for prejudice? What does Leah say about this?

• BEN (Jane refers to one blue-eyed male student as 'darling')
• Do you think he likes to be called 'darling'?
• Why do you think he doesn't say anything about that?

• STEPHANIE (white female student with glasses and a headscarf)
• Does Stephanie choose to leave or is she forced out?
• Have you ever felt uncomfortable in a group? What did you do?
• Have you ever made somebody uncomfortable in a group?

• KERI and RASUL (blue-eyed female student and tall man of color)
• How would you describe each of them?
• What do you see as the differences between them?
• What are the similarities?

• THE BROWN-EYED GROUP
• Even when their blue-eyed colleagues were being treated harshly none of the students in the “superior” group challenged Jane or asked her to stop. Why do you think they don't do anything?

CONCLUSIONS: After viewing the film and discussing about it, we can reach some conclusions. Now, let's write them. Here the teacher asks the students to write their own conclusions from the lesson.

2.Theme: SERIAL (BAD) WEDDINGS
Aims:
- to let students know about cultural and religious stereotypes
- to realize the multicultural reality of our society
- to increase written comprehension of English
- to reflect on respect and tolerance
- to transmit historical knowledge about French colonization in Africa
- to learn to debate and draw your own conclusion

Time: 158 minutes
Materials: the movie in V.O with subtitles in English, the poster of the film, sheets, pens, computers with internet access

STAGE AND AIMS TIME PROCEDURE SKILLS PATTERNS OF INTERACTION MATERIALS

WELCOME
-to start the workshop

2 min.

T welcomes Ss, asks how they are.

Speaking

T-Ss
Ss-T

Stage 1 WARMER
-to introduce the workshop’s major aims
-to encourage Ss to freely express themselves
- to awaken curiosity, motivate and work imagination and creativity
4 min.

T asks Ss if they know the movie.

T proposes to Ss that they try to imagine what the movie is about

T asks two Ss to relate their assumptions

Speaking
T-Ss
Ss-T
T-Ss

Stage 2
INTRODUCTION

-to introduce the topic of stereotypes

15 min.

T projects on the digital screen posters of the film and asks to work in groups the students must write what they think the movie is about now and brainstorm some ideas on the different symbols that appear on the poster.

T asks to put in common the different ideas

Speaking/writing
T-Ss
Ss-T

Posters of the movie
- to improve English written comprehension

97 min.
Projection of the movie
Listening

Movie in V.O. with subtitles in english

Stage 3 ENGAGEMENT

-to work in a group
- to realize the existence of very marked stereotypes
-to debate
-to express opinion 20 min.
T asks Ss to write everything they remember seeing in the movie about Chinese culture, Jewish culture, Islamic culture and African culture.

Ss the students compare collectively and make a recapitulative list to define the stereotypes transmitted in this film.

T asks Ss who think about these stereotypes and Ss debate on this topic

Writing/
Speaking

T-Ss
Ss –T
Ss-Ss

Papers and pens
Stage 4

-to learn a bit of history

20 min.
T asks Ss if they have understood the part in which the two parents are talking about communism, Charles de Gaulles and the French colonization in Africa. Ss answer
T divides the class into three groups and looks for information on the internet on the above topics and choose a representative of each group to then transmit the information to the whole class. Writing/
speaking
T-Ss
Ss – Ss
Computers, papers and pens
Stage 5 CONCLUDING ANALYSIS

-to allow Ss for exchanging their ideas and reflective thinking 10 min. T asks the question:
What do you think about making a comic movie about stereotypes and with what objectives?
After Ss have read their ideas out, there is an analysis done by the T who points to the most common factors that have been mentioned by students. T points out to the most frequent reasons and concludes.
Speaking
T – Ss
Ss-Ss

3.Theme: ATYPICAL TOPICS : CARRYING ON A SHORT PLAY ABOUT THE MOST FAMOUS SPANISH STEREOTYPES.

Aims:
- Students will reflect on some old or current stereotypes about Spanish which are known by more and more people around the world.
- By playing the role of typical characters or as theatrical audience, students will understand the difference between, on the one hand, customs and traditions; and, on the other hand , stereotypes.
- Students will be aware of the negative consequences of using cliches, instead of seriously concerned about know a culture and to tolerate it.
- Through humour and comic/funny situations students will deconstruct stereotypes about Spanish customs, traditions, habits, etc.

STAGE AND AIMS TIME PROCEDURE SKILLS PATTERNS OF INTERACTION MATERIALS

WELCOME

10 min
Teacher welcomes students to the theatre workshop and introduces the subject of the short play by explaining the whole idea.
speaking
Teacher-students
Students-teacher
---
Stage 1

THE FIRST READING

-to understand the subject
50 min

Students read the play, they ask questions about it and they have to talk about some terms connected with the text.
• What is a stereotype?
• What is the difference between customs, traditions and stereotypes?
• Why is it frivolous and unfair to know a culture through stereotypes?
• What is the role of humour when we see how somebody judges our culture through stereotypes?

Reading
speaking
Teacher-students
students-teacher

Photocopies of the play

Stage 2
CHOOSING THE CAST
-to choose actors and actresses

60 min
Teacher asks who wants to be the main actor or actress, and who prefers acting as an extra.
All of us, students and teacher, will select the main actors and actresses.

Speaking
reading

Teacher-students
students-teacher

Photocopies of the play
Stage 3
WORK ON
PRONUNCIATION

-to improve the English pronunciation of a few words which are said in the play.
20 min

(x3)
Students read again the play, but from now on everyone plays the character according to the casting.
Students read twice the play for learning the correct pronunciation of the few words which they have to know. They will write the phonetic transcription of these words in their photocopies.

Reading,
listening,
writing

Teacher-students
students-teacher

Photocopies of the play

Mobile:
Word reference

Stage 4
WORK ON
MUSIC, CHOREOGRAPGY,
SCENOGRAPHY

-to prepare music, scenography and costume

60 min

Students are divided into two groups:

• The first group read again the play, but this time they have to note thoroughly all the stage props that we will need to put on the play.

• The second one will help to me to look for the music on the Internet that we listen to during the performance.

Finally, everybody have to look for their dressing-up and the elements that they can bring to the play.

Reading,
speaking , writing

Teacher-students
students- teacher
Photocopies of the play

Whiteboard:
Internet

Stage 5
REHEARSAL
-to rehearse the play 30 min
(every time we rehearse the play)
Students have to repeat the play again and again until they learn particularly movements and gestures, apart from the few words in the script that the characters say.

On the one hand, step by step in every rehearsal they will improve the way the characters act. On the other hand, they can contribute with their ideas to create and build the characters.

Speaking

Students-teacher

Photocopies of the play
Stage 6
PERFORMANCE

-to view the play

-to reach some basic conclusions about Spanish stereotypes and to reflect on the play
15 min

Students performance of the play.

Speaking

Teacher-students
Student-students
Lights

Scenography

Audiovisual media

4.Theme: LEARNING SPANISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE

Aims:
- To start the first Spanish lessons of elementary level (A1).
- Students will pronounce the most frequently used Spanish words.
- Students will know de basic grammar about the verb 'ser' (to be).
- Students will practice a little communicative situations.
- Students will listen to several famous songs in Spanish language in order to identify some basics taught words.

STAGE AND AIMS TIME PROCEDURE SKILLS PATTERNS OF INTERACTION MATERIALS

WELCOME

-to start the workshop
-to brainstorm
10 min

Teacher welcomes students, asks how they are and what Spanish words they know.
Speaking
Teacher-students
Students-teacher
Whiteboard
Stage 1
INTRODUCTION

-to introduce vocabulary about greetings, introducing yourself or someone else and say goodbye to someone.

20 min
Teacher writes sentences connected with the subject, she pronounces it and she asks them to repeat it. For example:

• Greetings: ¡Hola!, ¿Qué tal?,¡Buenos días!...
• Introduting yourself: Yo soy..., Yo me llamo...
• Say goodbye: ¡Adiós!, ¡Hasta luego!, ¡Hasta la vista!...

Writing, listening and
speaking
Teacher-students
students-teacher
Whiteboard
Stage 2
BASIC VOCABULARY

-to provide basics words and sentences 20 min
Teacher writes several basics words and useful sentences in order to speak Spanish in the classroom context.
The teacher asks the students to repeat some examples such as:
• Sí, no, vale...
• Perdón, lo siento, disculpa...
• Por favor, gracias, de nada...
• No hablo español, no comprendo español...
• ¿Puedes repetir, por favor?
• ¿Qué significa...?, ¿Cómo se dice ´book´ en español?...

Writing, listening and
speaking

Teacher-students
students-teacher

Whiteboard

Stage 3
PRONUNCIATION

-to know and pronounce Spanish phonetics 20 min

Teacher gives out worksheet about the Spanish alphabet.
The teacher asks the students to pay attention to repeat some homophone phonemes and she explains to them that we must write the spellings/ letters in different way but we pronounce it in the same way. Then, the teacher talks about /h/(without sound in Spanish). Finally, students will read some words written with these sort of difficult spellings.
• B/v
• C/ z (ce, ci=z)
• G/j (ge, gi=j// ga, gue, gui, go, gu// güe, güi)
• K/ c/ q (ca, co, cu, que, qui=k)
• LL/y
• H

Listening, reading and
speaking

Teacher-students
student-teacher

Worksheet and
whiteboard

Stage 4
LISTENING

- to recognize enjoying vocabulary and phonetics 15 min

Teacher asks the students to say the names of the very famous singers or songs in Spanish. After that she gives out worksheet about Shakira´s song (´La bicicleta´). That song has some gaps which students will fill out it with several easy words.

Reading and listening

Teacher-students
student-teacher

Worksheet and
interactive whiteboard
Stage 5
GRAMMAR

- to know the basic grammar about the verb 'ser' (to be) I.

30 min ´
First of all, teacher explains the main uses of verb `ser´ (to be) and she provides basic vocabulary about nationalities, countries, jobs and colours.
Then, with the idea of using the verb `ser´,
students are divided in pairs or into small groups (2-3 Ss) and they have to talk a brief conversations trying to use the given grammar structures. Spanish students should help them to translate or pronounce whatever they need. Meanwhile teacher listens to every conversation and correct theirs mistakes.

Listening,
speaking and
writing

Teacher-students
Student-student

Worksheet

Whiteboard
Stage 6
GRAMMAR
-to know the basic grammar about the verb 'ser' (to be) II.

25 min Firstly, teacher explains other uses of verb `ser´ and she gives out vocabulary of things and basic adjectives .
Then, with the idea of using the verb `ser´,
students are divided in pairs or into small groups (2-3 Ss) and they have to talk a brief conversations trying to use the given grammar structures. Spanish students should help them to translate or pronounce whatever they need. Meanwhile teacher listens to every conversation and correct theirs mistakes.

Listening,
speaking and
writing

Teacher-students
Student-student

Worksheet

Whiteboard

Stage 7
SUMMING-UP

-to say goodbye with a great smile
20 min
Teacher gives out worksheet about Enrique Iglesias´s song (´Duele el corazón´). That song has some gaps which students will fill out it with several easy words.
To end the lesson, students will listen to the Spanish songs they like best.
Reading and listening
Teacher-students
student-teacher
Worksheet and
interactive whiteboard

5.Theme: PREJUDICES, RACISM, XENOPHOBIA AND TOLERANCE.

Aims:
- to increase awareness about clichés and stereotypes in different cultures by watching videos made by themselves about their own country
- to understand and define the meaning of „stereotype”
- to realize how stereotypes are the origin of racism and still a part of our reality
- to understand the reasons behind discrimination and the mechanism of discrimination
- to reject stereotypes in relation with other people
- to be tolerant towards other people’s distinctiveness.

STAGE AND AIMS TIME PROCEDURE SKILLS PATTERNS OF INTERACTION MATERIALS

WELCOME

- to start the workshop
2 min

Teacher welcomes students, asks how they are
speaking
Teacher-students
Students-teacher
---

Stage 1

WARMER

- to introduce topic

5 min
Teacher asks

• First of all, how do you define stereotype?

Students raise their hands and give their answers

speaking
Teacher-students
students-teacher

smartboard

Stage 2
INTRODUCTION

- to make clear the meaning of the term
“ stereotype” 5 min
Teachers asks

• Do you want to know what the definition really is?

A student chosen by the teacher reads out aloud the definition and two clarifying examples so that every student understands the real meaning of the word.

Speaking
reading

Teacher-students
students-teacher
teacher-students

Smart board

Stage 3
VIEWING A MOVIE&
DISCUSSING

- to realize the existence of stereotype about Spanish people and find out that they are not true.
15 min

5 min (brainstorming)

5 min
(video)

5 min
(discussion)
• brainstorming about Spanish stereotypes
• class debate about the ideas students have given.
• we watch a video of real interview in the street made by Spanish students.
• teacher asks Spanish students if they agree with what they have seen.
• We try to get conclusions after having watched the video with all students: French , Turkish and Polish.

Listening
speaking

Teacher-students
student-student

smartboard

film

Stage 4
VIEWING A MOVIE&
DISCUSSING

-to realize the existence of stereotypes about Turkish people and find out that they are not true.
15 min

5 min (brainstorming)

5 min
(video)

5 min
(discussion)
• brainstorming about Turk stereotypes
• class debate about the ideas students have given.
• we watch a video of Turkish stereotypes made by Turkish students.
• teacher asks Turkish students if they are agree with what they have seen.
• We try to get conclusions after having watched the video with all students: French , Polish and Spanish.

Listening
Speaking

Teacher-Students
student- student

Smartboard
film
Stage 5
VIEWING A MOVIE&
DISCUSSING

- to realize the existence of stereotypes about French people and find out that they are not true. 15 min

5 min (brainstorming)

5 min
(video)

5 min
(discussion)
• brainstorming about French stereotypes
• class debate about the ideas students have given.
• we watch a video of French stereotypes made by French students.
• teacher asks French students if they agree with what they have seen.
• We try to get conclusions after having watched the video with all students: Turkish , Polish and Spanish.

Listening
Speaking

Teacher- students
student-student

Smartboard
film
Stage 6
CONCLUSIONS

-to reach some basic conclusions about racism and discrimination
5 min

In conclusion , we can see that every country has preconceived ideas about the people of others countries and this kind of ideas are responsible of racism and xenophobia.
We feel fears to people who are different from us that why we are working in this Erasmus+ project, to prove WE CAN ELIMINATE ALL PREJUDICES TO BE MORE TOLERANT.

speaking

teacher-students

smartboard

6.Theme: PHOBIAS AND EXTREMES: STAGING A SHORT PLAY ABOUT POLITICAL EXTREMISM.

Aims:
- Students will understand some reasons behind current political extremism.
- By playing the role of symbolic characters or as an theatrical audience, students will reflect on the following terms: political extremism, tolerance, global market or global net.
- Students will be aware of the dangerous consequences of abusing the mobiles in human communication.
- Students will have more sense of social solidarity towards unfair situations such as poverty, hunger, unemployment, war, etc.

STAGE AND AIMS TIME PROCEDURE SKILLS PATTERNS OF INTERACTION MATERIALS

WELCOME

10 min
Teacher welcomes students to the theatre workshop and introduces the subject of the short play by explaining the whole idea.
Speaking and listening
Teacher-students
Students-teacher
---
Stage 1

THE FIRST READING

-to translate the text and vocabulary related to the topic
-to understand the subject
50 min

Students read the play, they ask questions about vocabulary and they have to talk about some terms connected with the text.
• What is political extremism?
• What are the most relevant unfair social situations? Why?
• What are the main dangers of the mobiles use?•
Reading
speaking
Teacher-students
students-teacher

Photocopies of the play

Stage 2
CHOOSING THE CAST

-to choose actors and actresses

60 min
Teacher asks who wants to learn the largest script and who prefers acting as an extra.
In case of getting more candidates than expected, we do a casting in order to choose the main actors and actress who have to act some characters with a long text to learn. All of us, students and teacher, will select the main actors and actresses.

Speaking
reading

Teacher-students
students-teacher

Photocopies of the play
Stage 3
WORK ON
PRONUNCIATION

-to improve the English pronunciation of the play´s text.
20 min

(x3)
Students read again the play, but from now on everyone plays the character according to the casting.
Students read twice the play for learning the correct pronunciation of the words which they do not know. They will write the phonetic transcription of these words in theirs photocopies.

Reading,
listening,
writing

Teacher-students
students-teacher

Photocopies of the play

Mobile:
Word reference

Stage 4
PREPARING MUSIC,
CHOREOGRAPHY,
SCENOGRAPHY

-to prepare music, scenography and costume.

60 min

Students who have a little text to learn are divided into three groups of five people:

The first group look for photographs on the Internet about some topics mentioned in the play (poverty, war, global market, etc.). Then they have to create a file in which all the images will be located in order to do a presentation that will take part of the play.

Meanwhile, another group will look for the music that we listen to during the performance. If somebody can play some instrument, he/she can do it.

The third group have to do paper masks and they will ask theirs mates about black clothes in order to prepare the theatre costumes.

Reading,
speaking , writing

Teacher-students
students- teacher
Photocopies of the play

Whiteboard:
Internet

Stage 5
REHEARSAL
-to rehearse the play 30 min
(every time we rehearse the play)
Students have to repeat the play again and again until they learn not only the script but also the movements, gestures, etc. that the characters do.

On the one hand, step by step in every rehearsal they will improve the way the characters act. On the other hand, they can contribute with their ideas to create and build the characters.

Speaking

Students-teacher

Photocopies of the play
Stage 6
PERFORMANCE

-to get ready to watch the play

-to view the play

-to reach some basic conclusions about political extremism and to reflect on the play
15 min

The teacher writes a small flyer which explains the sense of the play to the audience.

Students perform a play.

Reading,
speaking

Teacher-students
Student-students
Lights

Scenography

Audiovisual media

Piano

7.Theme: IMMIGRATION STORIES
Aims:
- to develop students’ listening skills
- to develop students’ speaking skills
- to develop students’ reading skills
Level : B1 +

STAGE AND AIMS
1st class TIME PROCEDURE SKILLS PATTERNS OF INTERACTION MATERIALS
WELCOME
-to start the class 3 min
-T greets Ss asks how they are. Speaking T - Ss
Ss - T
Stage 1 : WARMER
- to improve understanding skills 2 min
-T explains the topic
Listening T - Ss

Stage2
INTRODUCTION
- to improve speaking and understanding skills 4 min
-T gets the Ss wonder about immigration:
What are the different reasons immigrants come to Europe?
Does the immigrant experience relate to my own identity? And how ?
What challenges do immigrants face in Europe? Speaking/
Listening T - Ss
Ss - T
Board

Stage3 ENGAGEMENT
- to improve speaking and understanding skills 20 min
-T divides the class up into small groups of 4-6 students
-T assigns each group one of the testimonies
-T gives the Ss time to read through their assigned story.
-T asks The Ss to discuss how each account might be similar or different from other immigrant experiences they may be familiar with. Speaking/
Listening/
Reading T - Ss
S - T
S - S Video
Computer
Stage 4 FREER PRACTICE
- to improve speaking and understanding skills
- to provide communicative practise of the target language 14 min
-T asks Ss for their ideas.
-Ss compare their ideas with partners.
-T invites Ss to debate bearing in mind those questions
What did you learn from the immigrant stories presented (and others you may baware of)?/ What were the major similarities and differences? / What are some of the reasons people decide to leave their country of origin? / What are the different challenges one might experience coming to Europe as a child, teenager, and young adult? Is there an age at which it might be easier or more difficult to make such
a life change? Speaking/
Listening T - Ss
S - T
S - S
Stage 5CORRECTION
-to correct any errors heard and to allow the Ss to participate in the correction 5 min
-T writes errors on the board.
-Ss identify and correct the errors.
-T writes the particularly good language.
-Ss note them on their copybook. Reading/
Listening/
Speaking T - Ss
S - T
S - S Board

Stage 6 HOMEWORK 3 min
-T assigns homework : the Ss should conduct family interview and complete Interview Worksheet T - Ss Worsheet

STAGE AND AIMS
2nd class TIME PROCEDURE SKILLS PATTERNS OF INTERACTION MATERIALS
WELCOME
-to start the class 3 min
- T greets Ss asks how they are. speaking T - Ss
Ss - T
Stage 7 RECAP
- to revise 5 min
- T asks Ss to recapitulate what has been done. Speaking/
Listening T - Ss
S - T
Stage 9 GROUP
MAKING 2 min
- T puts the Ss in small groups
Speaking/
Listening T - Ss

Stage 10 CONTROLLED PRACTICE
- to provide communicative practise of the target language 20 min
- T has the Ss share their experiences interviewing family members in small groups (5-6 students).
- T monitors and sees what new vocabulary Ss are having problems with. Speaking/
Listening T – Ss
S - T
S - S

Stage 11 FREER PRACTICE
- to improve speaking and understanding skills
- to provide communicative practise of the target language 13 min
- T asks each group to share some of their ideas and discussion points with the rest of the class
- T monitors and sees what new vocabulary Ss are having problems with.
- T monitors the groups and makes notes of any common errors and any particularly good language that T hears.
Speaking/
Listening T - Ss
S - T
S - S
Stage 12 CORRECTION
-to correct any errors heard and to allow the Ss to participate in the correction 7 min
- T writes errors on the board.
- Ss identify and correct the errors.
- T writes the particularly good language.
- Ss note them on their copybook. Reading/
Listening/
Speaking T - Ss
S - T
S - S Board

Immigration stories- handout

WEBSITES

a/ StoryCorps Historias
http://www.storycorps.org/historias-en

StoryCorps is a national nonprofit that records and shares the stories of everyday people. As part of this initiative, StoryCorps Historias focuses on stories and life experiences.
Listen to stories on their website.
b/ My Immigration Story.com
http://www.myimmigrantionstory.com
This website offers a range of stories from recent immigrants via photographs, video clips, audio recordings, and written accounts. Immigrants are invited to share their own experiences and stories on this interactive site.

CHART: Immigration: Stories

Panelist Names
Arrival Story
Previous Countries Lived In
Immigrant Subcategory/ Status
Occupation
Family
Challenges Faced
Assistance Received

The teacher’s questions :
1. Who immigrated to Europe in our family and where did they come from?
2. Who made the decision to move to Europe and why?
3. What kind of work did they do when they arrived in the new country?
4. Did part of the family stay behind? If so, do you maintain contact with them?
5. What were some of the challenges our family faced when they first arrived in the new country?

8.Theme: MULTICULTURAL SOCIETY (''THEN AND NOW'' AND ''BLACK TO YELLOW'').
Aims:
- to consider the advantages and disadvantages of living in a multicultural society
- to develop students’ listening skills
- to develop students’ speaking skills
- to develop students’ reading skills
Level : B1 +
STAGE AND AIMS
1st class TIME PROCEDURE SKILLS PATTERNS OF INTERACTION MATERIALS
WELCOME
-to start the class 3 min
- T greets Ss asks how they are. speaking T - Ss
Ss - T
Stage 1 WARM-UP
- to provide the Ss with the opportunity to exchange opinions 8 min
- T asks Ss to brainstorm the word “Division”.
- Ss write down anything they think causes divisions between people e.g. race, religion, class, sexuality,etc..
- T takes suggestions from the Ss.
- T gets Ss write their suggestions on the board. Speaking/
Listening T - Ss
S - S Board
Stage 2 LEXI
- to improve master of vocabulary 8 min
- T explains the meaning of the key words.(Multicultural,Immigration,Integration,Segregation Prejudice,Discrimination,Racism,Race). Speaking/
Listening T - Ss
Ss - T
Board

Stage 3
INTRODUCTION&
CONTROLLED PRACTICE
- to improve speaking and understanding skills 10 min
- T displays a copy of Charles Booth’s map on the whiteboard.
- T explains that the map shows London in 1889 and what the colour coding means.
- T asks for comments from the Ss, and prompts them with questions if there’s no response : Who might have lived in the different areas? Where would you most like to live? Where would you actually live? Does this sort of division still exist today? Are we more integrated now than then? Or more segregated? Who might have lived in the poorer areas? Who might have live in the richer areas? Speaking/
Listening T - Ss
S - T
S - S Video
Computer
Stage 4
VIEWING A MOVIE
- comprehension task 18 min
- T shows the films ''Then and Now'' and ''Black to Yellow''.
- T allows the Ss to respond with any immediate comments. (Do the films give a positive or negative view of multicultural Britain? Are the films fair in what they say? Does the poem Black to Yellow give an accurate representation of black people’s experiences in Britain?).
- T hands out a copy of the poem 'Black to Yellow''. Reading/
Listening/
Speaking T - Ss
S - T
S - S Video
Computer
Stage5 HOMEWORK 3 min
- T tells the students that next time they are going to talk in groups about topics related to the videos.
- T assigns homework : the Ss should draw up a list of all the good things about living in a multicultural society and all the bad things about living in a multicultural society. T - Ss

STAGE AND AIMS
2nd class TIME PROCEDURE SKILLS PATTERNS OF INTERACTION MATERIALS
WELCOME
-to start the class 3 min
- T greets Ss asks how they are. speaking T - Ss
Ss - T
Stage 6 RECAP
- to revise 5 min
- T asks Ss to recapitulate what has been done. Speaking/
Listening T - Ss
S - T
Stage 7 CONTROLLED PRACTICE
- to provide communicative practise of the target language 12 min
- T asks Ss for their ideas.
- Ss compare their ideas with partners.
- T invites Ss to debate.
Speaking/
Listening T - Ss
S - T
S - S
Stage 8 FREER PRACTICE
- to improve speaking and understanding skills
- to provide communicative practise of the target language 14 min
- T hands out a photocopy of a map of the local area.
- T gets the Ss to colour-code it in a similar way.
- T asks the Ss what divisions they want to show: It could be poor/rich, commercial/domestic, even ethnic or faith groups.
- T steers the conversation towards what makes the class an integrated community.
Speaking/
Listening T - Ss
S - T
S - S Photocpy
Stage 9 CORRECTION
-to correct any errors heard and to allow the Ss to participate in the correction 7 min
- T writes errors on the board.
- Ss identify and correct the errors.
- T writes the particularly good language.
- Ss note them on their copybook. Reading/
Listening/
Speaking T - Ss
S - T
S - S Board

MATERIALS :
Then and Now (2:53) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BDAnf-IabjA

Joyce Kudia looks at Charles Booth's Map Descriptive of London Poverty in 1889-1891 and visits Brick Lane in the East End of London to see if the same class divisions still exist. This film was made by Manifesta as part of their Breaking into the Museum project, with support from the Museum of London and the Heritage Lottery Fund.

Black to Yellow (3:11) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mtPkt2ccsdY
Chris Lamontagne performs a poem in response to Charles Booth's Map Descriptive of London Poverty 1889-1891. He examines how people are still stereotyped according to race and class and the inequalities of today's society. This film was made by Manifesta as part of their Breaking into the Museum project, with support from the Museum of London and the Heritage Lottery Fund.

Black to Yellow
by Chris Lamontagne

BLACK SEMI-CRIMINAL
That’s what they label my class, but I’m an individual,
Religion taught people to respect the ones that rule,
What power to use mystical Biblical subliminals

So magical I can feel it in the physical,
I feel it when I acknowledge my mum working 24/7,
Struggling for a boss that don’t know her presence,
But she don’t see the exploits she sees it as living

I see it as undercover slavery,
Society being affected by self-fulfilling prophecy,
Illusions – that freedom comes from a stable economy,
It’s a game to them... it’s Monopoly

They wonder why we’re led into crime,
Why do things legit when the ones that make the law make us unwise,
Look into my eyes and my mind,
I see corruption I see the lies despite media hype.

UPPER MIDDLE-CLASS
What is class, how is it defined?
Am I seen superior because I cross the yellow line?

Stereotyped as the hooded-up boy living amongst crime,
Best sight is insight so I move blind,
Vision is blurred so I use my third eye,
Because only my mind can see past the white lies

They look at the blue but not the white collar crime,
Tax money from the poor, funding for war,
But they say it’s for charity, out for the majority,
But why should I care? Because I’m a minority

They say chase two birds, you loose both,
So I make the bread to make the birds chase me,
See it through my eyes, I can reach for success,
Living is hard but I can’t live with regrets.

9.Theme: IMMIGRATION MYTHS
Aims :
- To develop students' listening skills
- To develop students’ discussion skills
- To encourage reflection and critical thinking
- To break down myths and stereotypes about immigration
Level : B 1
STAGE AND AIMS TIME PROCEDURE SKILLS PATTERNS OF INTERACTION MATERIALS
WELCOME
-to start the class 3 min
- T greets Ss asks how they are Speaking T - Ss
Ss - T
Stage1
INTRODUCTION OF
LEXI
- to generate interest in the topic 2 min
- T introduces this theme
- T has prepared six workstations around the room
- T has placed a sheet of poster paper at each workstation
- T has written one of the immigration myths below on the top of the poster paper (Workstation 1: Most immigrants are here illegally / Workstation 2: It’s easy to enter the country legally. My ancestors did; why can’t immigrants today?/ Workstation 3: Immigrants take good jobs from U.S. Citizens / Workstation 4: “The worst” people from other countries are coming to the United States and bringing crime and violence. / Workstation 5: Undocumented immigrants don’t pay taxes and burden the national economy / Workstation 6: Banning immigrants and refugees from majority-Muslim countries will protect our country from terrorists). Listening T - Ss

Chart paper
Stage 2
GROUP DIVISION
- to improve speaking and understanding skills 5 min

- T divides the Ss into six groups, and numbers the groups 1 through 6.
- T gives each group a different color marker.
- The Ss go to the workstation that matches his/her group’s number. Listening/
Speaking T - Ss
S - T
S - S Chart paper
Markers
Stage 3
COMPREHENSION
- to improve understanding skills 5 min
- The Ss hypothesize why that myth is not accurate.
- The Ss assign one person to record their responses.
- The Ss complete the following information for that myth:
Where you think this myth comes from / Who benefits from this myth / Why this myth is untrue
- Ss write on the chart paper Listening/
Speaking/
Reading T – Ss
S - T
S - S

Chart paper
Markers
Notebook
Stage 4
FREER PRACTICE
- to improve speaking and understanding skills
-to check what Ss have understood (reading task) 25 min
- The Ss repeat step 1 (move stations).
- The Ss repeat continuously until all the Ss have had a chance to think about all the myths
- Once at group’s original workstation Ss see what others had to say or add. Speaking/
Listening
Reading T - Ss
S - T
S - S Chart paper
Markers
Notebook

STAGE AND AIMS
2nd class TIME PROCEDURE SKILLS PATTERNS OF INTERACTION MATERIALS
WELCOME
-to start the class 3 min
- T greets Ss asks how they are. Speaking T - Ss
Ss - T
Stage 5 RECAP
- to revise 3 min
- T asks Ss to recapitulate what has been done. Speaking/
Listening T - Ss
S - T
Stage 6
SPEAKING &SELF-CORRECTION
- to improve speaking and understanding skills 18 min
- T asks Ss to give a feedback as a group
- Ss compare with partners.
- T invites Ss to take note for correct answers Speaking/
Listening T - Ss
S - T
S - S Board

Stage 7 FREER PRACTICE
- to improve speaking and understanding skills
- to provide communicative practise of the target language. 10min
- T tells the Ss they are going to work in group (same group)
- Ss discuss the four myths listed
- T monitors the groups and makes notes of any common errors and any particularly good language that T hears.
Speaking/
ListeningReading T - Ss
S - T
S - S Board

Stage 8 CORRECTION
-to correct any errors heard and to allow the Ss to participate in the correction 6 min
- T writes errors on the board.
- Ss identify and correct the errors.
- T writes the particularly good language.
- Ss note them on their copybook. Reading/
Listening
Speaking T - Ss
S - T
S - S Board

10.Theme: TIME TO FLEE
Aims:
- To develop students' listening skills
- To develop students’ discussion skills
- To encourage reflection and critical thinking
- To promote understanding of factors of spontaneous exodus experienced by many refugees fleeing their homes
- To encourage empathy with people who have to flee their homes (refugees – term to be introduced in following class)
Level : B 1

STAGE AND AIMS TIME PROCEDURE SKILLS PATTERNS OF INTERACTION MATERIALS
WELCOME
-To start the class 3 min
- T greets Ss asks how they are Speaking T - Ss
Ss - T
Stage 1
INTRODUCTION
What’s important to you?
- to improve speaking and understanding skills 25 min
- T introduces this theme
- T asks students to think silently for 1 min about the 5 most important things in their life à what are 5 things you could they not live without? (e.g. family, food etc).
- Ss discuss personal responses for 1 min with a partner.
- T distributes 1 piece of A4 paper to each student.
- Ss trace hand and write one ‘important thing’ on each digit => in the centre, write a word that defines your identity / you strongly identify with e.g. Australian, Student, family name etc.
- T writes a collection of student responses on white board and discusses emerging themes (family, safety, food/water, shelter etc), identifying what is important to us. Listening/
Speaking/ T - Ss
S - T
S - S Pieces of A4 paper
Board
Stage 2
TIME TO FLEE
- to improve speaking and understanding skills 17 min
- T presents the Time to flee scenario
- T groups students into 4s or 5s with those next to them
- T informs them they have only 5 mins to decide where they will go, how they will get there and what 15 items they will take. T tells groups they have 1 min to remove 5 items from their list à remind them they can only take what they can personally carry between them.
. Listening/
Speaking

STAGE AND AIMS
2nd class TIME PROCEDURE SKILLS PATTERNS OF INTERACTION MATERIALS
WELCOME
-to start the class 3 min
- T greets Ss asks how they are. Speaking T - Ss
Ss - T
Stage 3 RECAP
- to revise 3 min
- T asks Ss to recapitulate what has been done. Speaking/
Listening T - Ss
S - T
Stage 4
DISCUSSION
- to improve speaking and understanding skills 18 min
- T lists destinations, modes of transport & group items on board (group similar items loosely: Clothes, Food, Documents/I.D., Sentimental, and Luxury items
=> Groups to contribute 5 items to class list on board until all/most items are listed.
- Ss discuss types of items and identify what types of items are needs and wants
-Ss eliminate/debate some unnecessary/dangerous items if possible and discuss why these items may be problematic to take (e.g. weapons) and/or add ‘essential’ items (food, medication etc) not represented on the list. Speaking/
Listening T - Ss
S - T
S - S Board

Stage 5 FREER PRACTICE
- to improve speaking and understanding skills
- to provide communicative practise of the target language. 10min
- Ss complete Time to Flee: Reflection hand out addressing the following questions:
1. How did this activity make you feel? Describe some of the emotions you experienced during the activity.
2. Was it difficult to make these decisions under pressure? Did the group argue about what to take or where to go?
3. What single thing would you take if you had to leave your home right now? Why this over all others?
4. What do you think it would be like to go through this in real life?
5. Have you heard of situations where people have to do this?
- T monitors the groups and makes notes of any common errors and any particularly good language that T hears. Speaking/
ListeningReading T - Ss
S - T
S - S Board

Stage 6 CORRECTION
-to correct any errors heard and to allow the Ss to participate in the correction 6 min
- T writes errors on the board.
- Ss identify and correct the errors.
- T writes the particularly good language.
- Ss note them on their copybook. Reading/
Listening
Speaking T - Ss
S - T
S - S Board

11.Theme: MULTICULTURALISM, LANGUAGES AND NATIONALITIES
Aims:
- To help talk about cultural diversity in Britain and in their own country
- To develop students’ listening skills
- To develop students’ speaking skills
- To develop students’ reading skills
Level : B1 +
STAGE AND AIMS
1st class TIME PROCEDURE SKILLS PATTERNS OF INTERACTION MATERIALS
WELCOME
-to start the class 3 min
- T greets Ss asks how they are speaking T - Ss
Ss - T
Stage 1 WARMER
-to revise and practicse tenses
- to provide the Ss with the opportunity to exchange experiences 8 min
- T does a quick geography review of Britain.
- T asks Ss which four countries make up the UK (England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, Wales). Do they know the capital city of each country?( London, Belfast, Edinburgh, Cardiff)
- T encourages Ss to briefly tell the class about any places they’ve visited or would like to visit in the UK. Speaking/
Listening T - Ss
S - S
Stage 2
INTRODUCTION
- to generate interest in the topic
- to have Ss talk about hypothetical situations 8 min
-T tells the Ss that they are going to watch a short video called ‘Multicultural UK’. T asks them what they think it might contain.
- T writes the following words on the board : music, food, people, shops
- T shows the intro to the video (the first 12 seconds approx) to the class and asks Ss to make a mental note of what they see and hear related to the list on the board.
- In pairs Ss discuss what they can remember from the intro about the topics on the board. Tasks for volunteers to tell the class what kind of music they heard, what clothes they saw etc Speaking/
Listening T - Ss
S - T
S - S Board
Video
Computer
Stage 3 VIEWING&
DISCUSSION
- to improve speaking and understanding skills 15 min
- T plays the whole video and asks students to identify which cities in the UK the video describes. (London, Cardiff)
- On the board T draws a two column chart labelled ‘London’ and ‘Cardiff’. Ss copy the chart.
- T plays the video again. Ss make notes about each city as they watch and listen.
- Ss compare their information in pairs.
- T invites Ss to add their information in note form to the chart on the board.
- T hands out worksheets 1 and 2. Speaking/
Listening T - Ss
S - T
S - S Board
Video
Computer
Stage 4
COMPREHENSION
-to check Ss have understood (comprehension task) 13 min
- Ss complete accompanying video tasks 2 and 3.
- T plays the video again to check Ss's answers.
- T reads out the answers after Ss have compared with a partner. Reading/
Listening/
Speaking T - Ss
S - T
S - S Worksheets
Board
Video
Computer
Stage 5
HOMEWORK 3 min
- T tells the students that next time they are going to talk in groups about topics related to the video.
- T assigns homework : Find expressions you need to agree, disagree, to ask for and to give opinions. Listening T - Ss Board

STAGE AND AIMS
2nd class TIME PROCEDURE SKILLS PATTERNS OF INTERACTION MATERIALS
WELCOME
-to start the class 3 min
- T greets Ss asks how they are speaking T - Ss
Ss - T
Stage 6 RECAP
- to revise 5 min
- T asks Ss to recapitulate what has been done Speaking/
Listening T - Ss
S - T
Stage 7
HOMEWORK
CORRECTION
8 min
- T asks Ss for their lists of expressions
- Ss compare their lists with partners
- T invites Ss to add their expressions to the chart on the board.
Speaking/
Listening T - Ss
S - T
S - S Board

Stage 8 FREER PRACTICE
- to improve speaking and understanding skills
- to provide communicative practise of the target language 16 min
- T displays the discussion questions from the video tasks (How multicultural is your school and your town? Would you like to live in a multicultural city like Cardiff? What are the advantages of living in a multicultural society? What reasons can you think of for going to live in a new country? What difficulties do you think a migrant family would face? )
- T gives Ss 2 minutes to prepare what they want to say.
- Ss discuss the questions in groups of 3 or 4.
- T monitors the groups and makes notes of any common errors and any particularly good language that T hears. Speaking/
Listening T - Ss
S - T
S - S Board

Stage 9 ERROR
CORRECTION
-to correct any errors heard and to allow the Ss to participate in the correction 5 min
- T writes errors on the board.
- Ss identify and correct the errors.
- T writes the particularly good language.
- Ss note them on their copybook. Reading/
Listening/
Speaking T - Ss
S - T
S - S Board

MATERIALS TO THE LESSON :

Multicultural Britain (4:27)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yuqXO-ENu5Y

This video is based around the different ethnic minority groups which make up the UK population, which enable students to reflect on their own culture and minorities within it. It also deals with race and to some extent religion.

Multicultural Britain, Tasks :
1/ Check your vocabulary : gap fill

Complete the gaps with a word from the box.
Caribbean 1950s and 60s Asian 90s 1948
Eastern European British 1970s

1. Southall Broadway, in West London, has one of the largest _______________ populations in London.
2. Many _______________ people have families that originally come from different parts of the world.
3. The first large group of immigrants arrived by ship from Jamaica in _______________.
4. The Notting Hill Carnival is a celebration of _______________ culture.
5. In the _______________, Indian, Bangladeshi and Pakistani families made Britain their home.
6. Asian Ugandan refugees arrived in Britain in the _______________.
7. Somalis came to the UK in the _______________.
8. In recent years, _______________ citizens have arrived in Britain in search of work.

2/ Check your understanding: matching
Match the two sentence halves and write a – f next to the number 1 – 6.
1........ Sunny a. is from Kenya.
2........ Sunny’s father b. was born in London.
3........ Avinda c. came from Zambia.
4........ St Mary’s School d. went to Cardiff because he was offered a job there.
5........ Mercy, Joy and Derek e. was involved with a project that helps migrants.
6........ Derek f. didn’t have a job when he arrived in the UK.
Answers to Multicultural Britain exercises

1/ Check your vocabulary: gap fill
1. Asian
2. British
3. 1948
4. Caribbean
5. 1950s and 60s
6. 1970s
7. 90s
8. Eastern European

2/ Check your understanding: matching
1. b
2. a
3. f
4. e
5. c

12.Theme: A MULTICULTURAL SOCIETY – IMMIGRATION AND ETHNICITY
Aims:
- To develop students’ discussion skills
- To practice reading
- To encourage reflection and critical thinking
Level : B 2
STAGE AND AIMS TIME PROCEDURE SKILLS PATTERNS OF INTERACTION MATERIALS
WELCOME
-to start the class 3 min
- T greets Ss asks how they are speaking T - Ss
Ss - T
Stage 1
INTRODUCTION
- to generate interest in the topic
8 min
- T introduces this theme.
- T uses collections of pictures which reflect the diversity of the UK population.
- T elicits from Ss: Where might these people’s families originate ? What are they wearing? Were they born in Britain? How long have they been in the UK?
- T asks Ss to focus on the word ‘multicultural’ – Could they describe their own country as multicultural? What is a multicultural curriculum? Speaking/
Listening T - Ss
S - T
S - S Pictures
Computer
Stage 2 LEXI
- To improve master of vocabulary
- to improve speaking and understanding skills 10 min
- T uses the questionnaire to preview vocabulary like: Immigrant, immigration, racial group, settle in a country.
- T gives the worksheet for the students to do the questionnaire in pairs.
- Ss exchange responding the questionnaire.
- T monitors and sees what new vocabulary Ss are having problems with. Reading/
Speaking/
Listening T - Ss
S - T
S - S Worksheet

Stage 3
DISCUSSION
-to improve speaking and understanding skills 15 min - T refers the Ss to the discussion question in Task 2 and do this in pairs or as a whole class activity.
- T gives guidance by talking through the first 2 examples Reading/
Speaking/
Listening T - Ss
S - T
S - S

and use this to preview vocabulary for different types of religion and racial groups. Worksheet

Stage 4 READING
-to check Ss have understood (reading task) 12 min
- T refers the Ss to the pre-reading questions in Task 3 and asks them to predict the answers together.
- T emphasises that it doesn’t matter if they don’t know.
- Ss read the text and check their answers.
- T gives them time to compare their answers in pairs before telling them what the answers are. Reading/
Listening/
Speaking T - Ss
S - T
S - S Worksheets
Press Article
Stage 5
HOMEWORK 2 min
- T tells the Ss to prepare Task 4.
Listening T - Ss
STAGE AND AIMS
2nd class TIME PROCEDURE SKILLS PATTERNS OF INTERACTION MATERIALS
WELCOME
-to start the class 3 min
- T greets Ss asks how they are. speaking T - Ss
Ss - T
Stage 6 RECAP
- to revise 5 min - T asks Ss to recapitulate what has been done. Speaking/
Listening T - Ss
S - T
Stage 7
HOMEWORK
CORRECTION
14 min
- T asks Ss for their answers.
- Ss compare with partners.
- T invites Ss to take note for correct answers. Speaking/
Listening T - Ss
S - T
S - S Board

Stage 8 FREER PRACTICE
- to improve knowledge
- to improve speaking and understanding skills
- to provide communicative practise of the target language. 10 min
- T tells the Ss to prepare task 5 question a.
- Ss prepare question B in small groups.
- Ss share opinions. Speaking/
Listening T - Ss
S - T
S - S Worksheets
Stage 9 FREER PRACTICE
- to improve speaking and understanding skills
- to provide communicative practise of the target language. 13min
- T tells the Ss they are going to work in group of 3 or 4 for task 6.
- T gives Ss 2 minutes to prepare what they want to say.
- Ss discuss the questions in groups of 3 or 4.
- T monitors the groups and makes notes of any common errors and any particularly good language that T hears.
Speaking/
Listening T - Ss
S - T
S - S Board

Stage 10
ERROR
CORRECTION
-to correct any errors heard and to allow the Ss to participate in the correction 5 min
- T writes errors on the board.
- Ss identify and correct the errors.
- T writes the particularly good language.
- Ss note them on their copybook. Reading/
Listening/
Speaking T - Ss
S - T
S - S Board

TASKS TO THE LESSON: A Multicultural Society – Immigration and ethnicity
Task 1 - Questionnaire
• Where do your family originally come from?
• Have they always lived in your town?
• Where were your grandparents born?
• Did they ever move to another town or country? When? Why?
• Has anyone in your family ever emigrated? Where did they go? Why?
Task 2
In pairs or groups, discuss which of the following factors might decide a person’s ethnic group?
• religion • sex • skin colour • language • country of origin • political opinions
Task 3 – Reading : What do you know about immigration in the UK?
Try to answer the questions in pairs, then read the text to check your ideas.
• Where do black people in Britain originate from?
• Which country or countries do British Asians come from?
• When was the main period of immigration into Britain?
• What is the largest ethnic minority in the UK today?
Task 4 - Interpretation
• Name as many former British colonies as you can.
• Why are the colonies important in understanding the UK today?
• Did your country have any colonies? When? Where?
• What was the main reason for immigration to Britain after the war?
• Think of 2 other possible reasons for ethnic groups to change country.
• Where did most immigrants in the UK decide to live? What parts of your country might attract immigrants? Why?
Task 5 - Your country
• Describe your own ethnic group : Why do you belong to this group? Is your group a minority group in your own country?
• Describe the different ethnic groups that make up your country :Do you know the numbers for each group? Which are the main minority groups? Where did they originate? When and why did they move to your country? How do they contribute to the life of your nation?
Task 6 – Discussion
A group of immigrants or refugees will be arriving in your school soon.
• What aspects of school life might they need help with?
• How would you make them feel welcome?
• Describe 3 things you could do to help them to get used to life in your country

Multicultural Society

The UK has welcomed newcomers for centuries. It is a mixture of diverse ethnic groups, each with their own distinct culture and sometimes their own language or religion. This month is Black History month,celebrating the contribution that Afro Caribbean people have made to British society. Many British Asians will be celebrating Ramadan soon. There are 1.5 million Muslims in Britain with over 6,000 mosques. Asian can be a misleading term as it refers to all those people with roots or family connections in the former British colonies of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. Asian does not always mean that the person is of Indian descent. Not all Asians are Muslim. Some are Hindus and others are Sikhs. These 2 groups celebrate the festival of Diwalli on November 6th.
The Irish have come to Britain for many years, looking for work. After World War Two Irish and other European workers were encouraged to take factory jobs. Britain couldn’t get enough workers to help rebuild the economy and to work in the new Health Service so employers also looked to former colonies and Commonwealth countries. India, countries in Africa and the Caribbean had been controlled by Britain in the past and had strong cultural links with Britain, including the language. Many arrived in the hope of building a new life for their young families.
The descendants of these immigrants are now the teachers, the footballers, the TV presenters, the musicians and the politicians that shape British society. There are numerous ethnic newspapers, magazines, TV programmes, radio stations and internet sites for each community. The largest groups live in and around the capital London and many other groups are concentrated in the industrial centres in Yorkshire, The Midlands and the South East.

Ethnic minorities timeline
• 19th century: Jewish arrivals from Russia/Poland, escaping persecution
• Irish people escape from poverty in rural Ireland
• 1948 –50s: Caribbean workers invited to help rebuild post war Britain
• 1950s-60s: Asians from India, Pakistan and Bangladesh escape poverty
• 1970s: East African Asians escape persecution and Vietnamese escape war
• 1980s: Eastern European refugees arrive from war and political unrest in Romania and the former Yugoslavia.

Ethnic groups in the UK(6.5% of the British population are from ethnic minorities)
• White – 53,074,000 (includes Irish, Polish, Italian etc)
• Black Caribbean – 490,000 • Black African – 376,000
• Black other – 308,000 • Indian – 930,000 • Pakistani – 663,000
• Bangladeshi –268,000 • Chinese – 137,000 • Other Asian – 209,000 (includes Vietnamese, Malaysian, Thai)
• Other – 424,000 (people who did not think they fitted the above categories)

13.Theme: MIGRATIONS – LET’S TALK ABOUT REFUGEES
Aims:
- To let students be aware of what migrations are
- To increase students awareness of current political/social situation in the world
- To work out the reasons for migrations
- To make students reflect over the world’s refugee crisis
Time: 90 minutes
Materials: large sheets of paper to put on the board, markers, pieces of paper, pens
STAGE AND AIMS TIME PROCEDURE SKILLS PATTERNS OF INTERACTION MATERIALS
Part I MIGRATIONS AND REASONS BEHIND THEM

WELCOME
-to start the workshop

2 min.

T welcomes Ss, asks how they are.

Speaking

T-Ss
Ss-T

Stage 1 WARMER
-to introduce the workshop’s major aims
-to encourage Ss to freely express themselves

6 min.

Ss come to the board, one by one to put down the ideas they associate with MIGRATIONS. The outcomes are then summed up by the T who reads out students’ ideas, comments on them.
Speaking/
writing
T-Ss
Ss-T
T-Ss

Whiteboard/
Blackboard
Stage 2
INTRODUCTION OF THE TOPIC
- to define the word ‘migration’
5 min.

T gives background, origins of migration: migrating for food, safety, shelter. Some ideas for T: firstly there were discoveries, colonisation, times of big migrations, world wars, repressions, nowadays there is a problem of wars/conflicts, financial situation
Speaking
T-Ss
Ss-T

-to elicit criteria of migrations

10 min.
T asks Ss to work in groups and brainstorm some ideas on the topic: „Why do people migrate?”After discussions in groups Ss present their ideas. T summarises the discussion
classifying migrations into 2 categories: TIME and DIRECTION.
1st criterion of migration: TIME:
-short term migrations: seasonal , on business, a trip
-long term migrations; longer than a year : for work
-stable migrations: for life
2nd criterion of migration: DIRECTION:
-internal: town-village (to rest; elderly people fed up with hustle and bustle of a town). Village- town, town-town, reasons: for education, change of work, marriage
-external: abroad: emigration-leaving the country
-immigration: coming to a country
-re-emigration: returning after being abroad
-deportation: forced ressetlement, expelling from a country
-repatriation: returning to the homeland after being settled out( rather their grandchildren return)
-settling out/resettling
Writing/
Speaking

Ss-Ss
Ss-T
T-Ss

Pieces of paper per each group

Stage3
ENGAGEMENT
-to generate interest in the topic
-to make Ss work out reasons for migrations

5 min.
T asks Ss to come to a big piece of paper placed on the wall/board and write as many reasons for migration as they can come up with.
Example of the reasons for migrations:
-economic: better salaries
-life endangered by a conflict or war
-religious conflicts
-education
-curosity for getting to know other cultures- touristic reasons
-marriage/family reasons-the rest of the family joins the father
-political reasons: persecuted by a political group
-pilgrims/changing one’s religion
-sb is forced to leave- deportations
-for health reason – climate,etc.
Writing/
Speaking

T-Ss
Ss –T

a big piece of paper, markers
Stage 4
REASONING
-to allow Ss for brainstorming
6min.
Ss work in groups, each group choose a leader to write notes and to read out the ideas they come up with. Ss in groups are supposed to write : 3 factors that force sb to emigrate, than 3 factors attracting sb to immigrate Writing/
speaking
Ss – Ss
pieces of paper per group, pens
-to allow Ss for exchanging their ideas and reflective thinking 4 min.
Then Ss exchange their papers with other groups and tick the same ideas, or add their own factors to the other group’s ideas, e.g. gr.1 with gr.2, gr3 with group 4 and 5 with 6
Writing/
Speaking
Ss – Ss
pieces of paper, pens
4 min.
T chooses leaders of the groups to read out the ideas they have come up with. The leaders present the factors they’ve come up with to the rest of the class, they say what factors they have ticked or added. Ss read attracting factors and factors for leaving and what they had the same and what they added to the other group.
Speaking
T – Ss
Ss – Ss
Ss – T
pieces op paper, pens
Stage 5 CONCLUDING ANALYSIS
-to sum up the 1st part of the workshops 3 min. After Ss have read their ideas out, there is an analysis done by the T who points to the most common factors that have been mentioned by students. T points out to the most frequent reasons forcing somebody to emmigrate (e.g. racism, starvation, wars). T also summarises factors which attract people to emmigrate to another country (e.g. health care, better education,better financial status, safety, personal development). These are only the examples, Ss may come up with other factors.
Speaking
T – Ss

Part II LET’S TAK ABOUT REFUGEES
Stage 1 INTRODUTION TO THE 2ND PART OF THE WORKSHOP
- to allow Ss to freely express their opinions
5 min. T writes on the board: Are you for/against/on the fence about your country to accept immigrants?
T asks Ss to choose only one option and come to the board and put a vertical line (like in voting). Then the votes are counted. No analysis of results is being done here, T only gives the information about the counted votes.
Writing/
Speaking T – Ss
Ss – T board,chalk
Stage 2 ENGAGEMENT
-to make Ss realise that the problem of migrants/refugees is not new
-to provide Ss with some facts concerning migrants/refugees

5 min. T allows Ss to understand the situation of refugees by understanding their national cases. T puts two pieces of paper on the board, one entitled: Great people who emigrated in the past, another one: Great people who have emigrated recently. Ss give ideas for both categories (in the past in Poland: Mickiewicz, Słowacki, Norwid, Chopin, Kościuszko, etc.; at present: Tusk, Boniek, Lewandowski, John Paul II, etc.). T gives more of important names.
T also asks Ss to realise that there are 20 mln Poles outside Poland (with almost 40 mln inhabitants, we can say that half of them live abroad; over 10 mln in the USA, 2 mln in Germany and Austria, etc.).
T concludes that immigrants chose leaving their country to fulfill their dreams, to save lives (e.g. at the Times of annexation of Poland), but today the reasons are different, mainly financial. Speaking/
Writing T – Ss
Ss – T large sheets of paper, markers
Stage 3
REASONING
-to work out positives and negatives for the emigrant and immigrant country

18 min. T asks the question: What are the results for the country: an emigrant country like Poland and an immigrant country like France? Ss come up with positives and negatives for the accepting country and the same for the emigrant country (brainstorming in groups).
Ss read out their ideas for positives of the emigrant country (group by group). Ss’s examples: better material status, lower unemployment rate. T comments on it by giving example like: „You have more possesions as your father works abroad”.

Then Ss read out their ideas for negatives of the emigrant country (group by group). Ss’s examples: generation is getting older, less natural birth, less skilled workers so called „brain drainage”.

The same analysis is done for the immigrant country. Examples of positives: learning new culture, economic growth, getting rid of baby bust or aging generations. Examples of negatives: taking jobs, conflicts based on race, religion, bigger taxes, losing tradition, mixing of cultures, increased unemployment rate, illegal work, etc.
T can comment that the migrant crisis can be observed in the whole world so we have to be aware of positives and negatives.
Speaking/
Writing T – Ss
Ss – Ss
Ss – T pieces of paper, pens
-to provide Ss with some important facts connected with refugees

3 min. T can provide Ss with some facts:
65 mln people were forced to leave their homes while 21 mln of them are refugees, mainly from Syria. We need to be aware of some facts leading to this situation: in winter 2010/2011 there were protests in Syria about politics, there was a dictator who kept control, in 2014 – a domestic war, 422.000 people died up to 2016; 4,8 mln people escaped seeking for safety mostly to Turkey. In Poland we have 4000 Syrian refugees but only 38 people got the refugee status. Most people who wanted the asylum were people from Chechnya, Tajikistan, Ukraina. Speaking/
Listening T – Ss board
STAGE 4
DISCUSSION
-to allow Ss for reflective thinking
-to encourage Ss to freely express themselves and to look for solutions
10 min. After presenting some facts, T elicits discussion by asking questions and encouraging Ss: Do you want to accept refugees? Are you for/against or you are not sure about it? Nobody will try to change your opinion, I want to hear your opinion, who wants to start?
Ss present their worries about accepting refugees (class discussion).
Then Ss are asked to try to work out some solutions on how to help refugees and on what conditions (class discussion). Speaking/
Listening T – Ss
Ss – Ss
Ss – T
STAGE 5 CONCLUSION
-to sum up the most important aspects of the workshop 4 min. T summarises the 2nd part of the workshop. T comments again on the migrant crisis which can be observed in the whole world. T points to positives and negatives which have been discussed and emphasises the necessity to look for reasonable solutions on how to deal with the problem of refugees.
Speaking/
Listening T – Ss

14.Theme: ONE EXTREME TO THE OTHER
Aims:
- To understand what extremism is and why it is bad for society
- To think about possible solutions to the problems caused by extremism, e.g. education
- To think about how people should respond to terrorism
- To understand that there is a cycle of violence and consider ways to break out of it
- To understand what stereotypes are and why they are a form of prejudice
- To understand that diversity is good for society.
Time: 90 minutes
Materials: over-head projector , access to the Internet, blackboard/ whiteboard, papers
STAGE AND AIMS TIME PROCEDURE SKILLS PATTERNS OF INTERACTION MATERIALS
Part I The story of Mike Haines

WELCOME
-to start the workshop
2 min.
T welcomes Ss, asks how they are

Speaking

T-Ss
Ss-T

Stage 1
WARMER
-to introduce the workshop’s major aims
-to encourage Ss to freely express themselves

4 min.

Ss come to the board, one by one to match the key words (paper no 1) with correct definition. T must cut key word before the lesson and mixed them on the board. The outcomes are then summed up by the T who reads them out and comments on them.
Speaking
T-Ss
Ss-T
T-Ss

Whiteboard/
Blackboard
Stage 2 INTRODUCTION OF THE TOPIC
- to present Mike’s story
20 min.

T reads story (paper no 2) to Ss, there are three points in the story where T pauses to reflect
with Ss, by answering some questions which are also included below.
Listening/
Speaking
T-Ss
Ss-T

-to elicit main issues which can help to understand and overcome the problem of extremism

3 min.
The presentation continues with a series of activities designed to help T discuss some of the issues raised by Mike’s story. These are divided into two main themes:
• What are the obstacles to the success of Mike’s campaign?
• What is going to help Mike’s campaign to succeed?
T takes some ideas from the Ss before suggesting that the obstacles fall into three main areas:
1. Extremism
2. Stereotyping Writing/
Speaking

Ss-Ss
Ss-T
T-Ss

Pieces of paper per each group

Stage 3
EXTREMISM
-to define the term
- to think why is it dangerous for peace

7 min.
T informs that there are many other forms of extremism. It’s not just the ‘Islamist’ groups that were mentioned above . T asks Ss if they can think of other individuals or groups that might
be considered ‘extremist’. eg The English Defence League, National Front, Ku Klux Klan, Westboro
Baptist Church, Arab Liberation Movement...
But what makes them ‘extremist’?
T distributes sheets with questions (paper no 3).
Ask Ss to go through each statement to decide whether they are true or false.
This can be done individually, but do discuss each one (briefly) with the class to help them
understand the implications. Writing/
Speaking

T-Ss
Ss –T

Paper no 3, markers
Stage 4 STEREOTYPING
to define the term 6 min.
T asks Ss to think about the other schools in area. How would they describe each one
in just a few words? T takes a few suggestions. “Rough”, “stuck up”, “full of weirdos”. These descriptions are stereotypes. Ss’ school will have
a stereotype too – do Ss know what it is?
T explains that the ‘stereotype’ is often a simple caricature – a cartoon version of reality – that might be based on experience of meeting one member of a group, or on the actions of a small section of a
larger group. They are based more on opinion
than on hard facts. A stereotype is always a form of prejudice – making a judgement about someone (or a group of people) before you know them properly. Writing/
speaking
T – Ss
pieces of paper per group, pens
-why do people use stereotyping
6 min.
T Uses the activity to get Ss thinking about why we all use stereotypes. T distributes cut into pieces lists (Paper no 4) of some of the reasons why people use stereotypes. Ss should drag and drop them in order from most convincing (at the top) to least convincing (at the bottom), according to their opinion. The aim of the discussion is to help the students examine their own reasons for using stereotypes, and to begin to think about why that might be a problem in preparation for the next activity Writing/
Speaking
Ss – Ss
Paper no 4,
- why it is a problem
6 min.
T again, invites Ss to drag and drop the list (paper no 5) of reasons in order from most important to least important according to their opinion. And again, discusses the reasons and the order the class wants to put them in. There are no right or
wrong answers, but the aim is to help the students see how unhelpful, unfair or even dangerous using
stereotypes can be. Speaking
T – Ss
Ss – Ss
Ss – T
Paper no 5,
Part II
Let’s talk about what is going to help Mike’s campaign to succeed? 4 min. T asks Ss what they think might help Mike’s campaign to succeed.
Takes some ideas from the class before suggesting five factors that will be of help (and displaying them on the board):
1. Our multicultural society
2. People want peace
3. Education
4. Us Speaking T-Ss Overhead projector
Stage 1
OUR MULTICULTURAL SOCIETY
- to allow Ss to freely express their opinions

6 min. T asks Ss: What are the benefits and challenges of living in a multicultural society?
Take some suggestions from the class before you display slides (Paper no 6). Conclusion of this part is : Our future will depend on how well we can co-operate with each other and take advantage of the benefits a multicultural society brings. If we try to fight that we will be left behind by the rest of the world.
Speaking T – Ss
Ss – T overhead projector, Paper no 6,
Stage 2
PEOPLE WANT PEACE
-to make Ss realise that the problem of wars and terrorism is not new
6 min. T makes the point that most people – nearly all people – do not like conflict. As Mike points out in his story, they want to feel safe and live in a place surrounded with people they get on with.
T asks Ss to think about the kind of society they would like to live in. Using the activity,
they can make lists of attributes they’d like, and attributes they wouldn’t like.
When they have finished, ask them:
• What sort of society have you described?
• Is there anything missing from your list?
• Have you contradicted yourself anywhere?
• Look at the things you don’t want in society – what is it about them you don’t like? What sort
of society would the things they don’t like create? Speaking/
Writing T – Ss
Ss – T
Stage 3
EDUCATION
-how does education help

6 min. There’s a saying “Ignorance is bliss” but in most cases, it really isn’t. When people understand each
other and what makes them tick, they are less likely to be prejudiced. Education isn’t just about
learning to read and write, it really does help people to get on.
To get Ss thinking about the benefits of education, ask them to use the list (Paper no 7) to order from the most important to least important benefits of education (in their opinion). Speaking/
T – Ss
Ss – Ss
Ss – T Paper no 7,
STAGE 4
US
-what changes in society are needed to overcome the problems of diversity
10 min. T tells the class that research shows that the younger generation (them!) is more willing to accept difference and diversity. More young people are growing up in a more multicultural society and are much more at home with diversity in all its forms. The world has changed since their grandparents were at school... even since their parents were at school. The changing attitudes and values of society are reflected in the laws that have been made. Using the resource (Paper no 8) Ss should decide which statements are true and which are false.
T asks Ss if they were surprised – or even shocked – by some of the facts they have just read.
Why or why not? Ask the class what positive changes are needed in society? What can they do to help change society for the better? Speaking/
Listening T – Ss
Ss – Ss
Ss – T Paper no 8,
STAGE 5 CONCLUSION
-to sum up the most important aspects of the workshop 4 min. To conclude we return to Mike’s story (Paper no 9) to see and hear about the progress that his
campaign has made so far, including his visit to the Pope. We also hear how David’s work has
continued after his death, and we finish with an inspiring call to action from Mike. Listening T – Ss Paper no 9

Paper nr 1
Islam The Muslim religion – the word means ‘peace’ or ‘submission’ in Arabic.
Muslim A follower of Islam – the name means ‘someone who is at peace’ or ‘someone who submits [to God]’.
Prejudice Judging someone before knowing them properly.
Discrimination Doing something which shows prejudice.
Stereotyping The view that everyone in a group is the same.
Scapegoat A person or group of people who take the blame for things other people do wrong.
Diversity Having a range of different people in society, eg race, religion, political beliefs.
Empathy The ability to understand how other people feel.
Multicultural Having a range of different cultures in society.
Polarisation When people are at completely opposite extremes of an argument.
Patriotism Having pride in your country.
Xenophobia Hostility and prejudice against people from different countries or cultures.
Terrorism Using violence and threats against ordinary people to force political change.
Extremism Having political or religious views that go beyond what most people think are reasonable.
Daesh The Arabic name for ISIS (or ISIL).

Paper nr 2
In September 2014, a British aid worker called David Haines was beheaded by an ISIS terrorist. A video of the murder was uploaded to the internet, creating reactions of horror and anger across the world. But David’s brother, Mike Haines, has reacted in a way that many people would find unusual, if not incomprehensible. He does not hate the terrorists who killed his brother. He believes that if he allows hate into his life, then the terrorists have won. He argues that hate only leads to more hate, and an increase in suspicion and fear in our own communities. It is largely because of terrorist acts that our society has become more and more polarised. Mike believes that we cannot allow this to continue and that the best way to fight the terrorists is to talk to people, to ask questions, to make friends.
Part 1
1. This is the story of two brothers and how they found their paths in life.
2. I’m Mike, and David is my little brother.
3. Mum was in the Royal Navy, and Dad was in the Royal Air Force.
4. We travelled with my Dad to whatever country he was based in. We saw many countries, many cultures, many beliefs.
5. David and I were friends as well as brothers. We were the only constants in each other’s lives. He could be very annoying. I’m sure I was too.
6. We were shooting bottles with a low-powered air pistol. I shot David in the backside. He never let me forget that.
7. Mum and Dad brought us up to be as open-minded as possible, to learn about other people’s cultures and beliefs, and to show respect.
8. When we grew up, David and I both joined the RAF.
9. When we left the RAF, I became a mental health nurse and David went into humanitarian work to help refugees.
10. David joined ACTED in March 2013. He travelled from their headquarters in Paris to Turkey, where he was briefed before going to Syria.
I never saw him again.
Pause to reflect
• What made Mike and David’s relationship so close?
• Why is Mike so proud of his little brother?
Part 2
11. David and his colleague Federico had travelled to a refugee camp near Aleppo. On 11 March 2013, their convoy was ambushed. The security
guards were disarmed, and David and Federico were kidnapped.
12. When David began his humanitarian work, we had discussed kidnapping. I would be the point of contact between the authorities and my
family.
13. We were asked to provide ‘Proof of Life’ questions which, no matter his condition, David would be able to answer.
14. One of the questions was related to when I shot him with the air pistol. There were specific details he would never forget.
15. Some hostages were released and we gathered from them the identity of the kidnappers – this was ISIL.
16. ISIL or ISIS or Daesh is a terrorist organisation operating in Iraq and Syria.
17. They say they stand for Islamic values, but this is wrong. They stand for power, hatred, terror and fear.
18. On 19 August 2014, a video showing the murder of Jim Foley was released online by ISIS.
19. The video showed an ISIS terrorist – later identified as Mohammed Emwazi – in the process of killing Jim Foley.
20. Mohammed Emwazi, also known as ‘Jihadi John’ was brought up in west London. Just an ordinary
young man manipulated by evil people.
21. On 2 September, ISIS uploaded another video which showed the murder of Steven Sotloff.
22. In the background was my brother, paraded in an orange overall, with a look of horror on his face.
23. It took 16 minutes from the release of the video for the first reporters to arrive at my parents’ door.
24. I brought the whole family back to my home in Dundee where I could protect them from the media.
25. The image of horror on David’s face was plastered all over the internet, the television, the papers. You couldn’t get away from it.
26. On 13 September 2014 another video was published. My brother was gone.
Pause to reflect
• How would you feel if you were Mike, after what happened to his brother?
• What do you think was going through David’s mind when he was kneeling beside Emwazi?
• What would you want to do in Mike’s situation?
Part 3
27. My brother was not better than other men. David was an ordinary man who made mistakes, as we all do.
28. David was a hero – not for how he died, but for what he did. He went into areas of danger to help people in need. He was a true hero.
29. The reaction that people expect from me is hatred. The reaction the terrorists wanted was hatred. But hatred only breeds more hatred.
30. But I was not going to let terrorists dictate the way that I behaved. I was not going against what David and I believed in.
31. I want to talk of unity, tolerance and understanding.
32. We all want to be safe. We want to be free to follow our own beliefs. We want to live in peace.
33. Terrorists don’t want this. Terrorists want to bring hatred into our communities. They want to force us apart.
34. My Imam friend Shahnawaz and I came into contact through the Foreign Office, and now we have a truly wonderful friendship.
35. I learn from Shahnawaz. We have an understanding between us that we can ask questions about each other without causing offence.
36. My friendship with Shahnawaz and ones like it do more to fight terrorism than bombs and bullets. This is truly the way that we fight.
37. The fight against terrorism is not in some far-off country. It is here, now. We have to stand together.
38. By making friends with people from different backgrounds, we can overcome the fear that the terrorists want us to feel.
39. I will fight to my dying breath against the fear that they want to bring into our lives.
Pause to reflect • Is this the reaction you expected? Why or why not? • Why do you think Mike has chosen this approach?
Paper nr 3
1) Extremist views go beyond what most people think are reasonable.
2) I can tell if someone is an extremist just by looking at them.
3) Extremists are always violent.
4) Extremists are always religious.
5) All extremists come from the Middle East.
6) Some extremists deliberately target young people.
7) Extremism is against the law.
8) Extremists find it difficult to compromise.
9) Extremists find it hard to see other people’s points of view.
10) Extremists tend to think they are right.
11) Extremists want everyone to think like they do.
Answers: 1) T 2) F 3) F 4) F 5) F 6)T 7) F 8)T 9) T 10) T 11) T
Continue the discussion by asking your class if they think it is wrong to have strong views about something. Hopefully (!) they will disagree, because we need people with strong views to challenge society and help change it for the better. But these ideas need to be convincing enough for a majority of people to choose them of their own free will. They need to take other points of view into account in order to be fair to everyone and to show that the ideas can survive being challenged. Extreme views go beyond what most people would choose, but one of the biggest problems with extremists is that they continue to think their ideas are right, even when everyone else disagrees. They see no value in anyone else’s point of view. They fail to understand that if they have to use threats and violence to convince people of their arguments, then maybe they aren’t very good ideas. This can lead to unreasonable thinking and, eventually, dangerous behaviour: ‘If everyone thought like me, then the problem would disappear’, ‘Deport the people who don’t agree with me’, ‘Kill the people who don’t agree with me’.
Paper nr 4
• Because people think the stereotypes are funny.
• Because it is easier to think, “They are all the same”.
• A positive stereotype can make a group feel special.
• A negative or untrue stereotype can turn people against a group.
• It is sometimes quicker to use a stereotype.
• A positive stereotype can unite people.
• Stereotypes can be used to support government plans.
• An extreme stereotype is a good way to get attention.
• Stereotypes get easy reactions from an audience.
Paper nr 5
• People with very different personalities are seen as all the same.
• Large groups of people are seen as having the same negative characteristics.
• Many stereotypes are unfair.
• Many stereotypes are not true.
• A large group of people is blamed for the actions of a few.
• We don’t see people as individuals.
• People think of a group as ‘them’ and not ‘us’.
• Stereotypes concentrate on the differences between groups.
• People notice things that agree with a stereotype and ignore things that disagree with it.
Paper nr 6
Benefits:
• Wide variety of food
• Music
• Interesting fashion
• Art
• Opportunities to learn about other groups
• Different groups learn how to live together
• Culture evolves and doesn’t get stale
Challenges:
• Segregation
• Loss of identity
• Extremism
• Opportunity for discrimination
Paper nr 7
Understanding that there is diversity within a group.
Having the knowledge to tell what is true and what is made up.
Being more able to contribute to society.
Having the skills to enjoy diversity without feeling threatened.
Having the confidence to cope with change.
Having the ability to help change society for the better.
Helps people to develop self confidence.
Understanding promotes equality.
Educated people are more likely to find peaceful solutions to conflict.
Educated people tend to have fewer children.
Paper nr 8
In 2002, someone could be refused a job if they were the ‘wrong religion’.
Homosexuality wasn’t decriminalised in Scotland until 1975.
In 1979 a woman couldn’t apply for a bank loan or mortgage without a man (eg her husband or father) signing the agreement.
Until 2000 it was illegal to be in the Armed Forces if you were gay.
In 1974 a woman could be sacked from her job if she became pregnant.
In 1977 someone could be refused a job because they were black.
In 1982, the Court of Appeal decided that it was illegal for pubs and clubs to refuse to serve a woman.
In 2009 it was still legal for a shop or hotel to refuse to serve LGBT people.
In 1984 a law was passed to make rape within marriage a crime.
Until 1994 employers could refuse to give someone a job they were perfectly capable of doing if they were disabled.
In 2005, same-sex couples were finally allowed to get married.

ANSWERS
[TRUE – In 2003 the Employment Equality (Religion or Belief) Regulations made it illegal to refuse someone employment because of their religion.]
[FALSE – It was actually even later. In England and Wales, homosexuality was decriminalised in 1967, but remained illegal in Scotland until 1980, and illegal in Northern Ireland until 1982.]
[TRUE – It wasn’t until 1980 that a woman could sign in her own right.]
[TRUE – The law was changed, much to the relief of all the gay soldiers, sailors and pilots.]
[TRUE – In 1975 a law was passed to make it illegal to sack a woman because she is pregnant.]
[FALSE – The Race Relations Act made it illegal to refuse someone a job because of their race only a year earlier in 1976.]
[TRUE – Some pubs and clubs were still refusing to serve women.]
[TRUE – In 2010 The Equality Act made it illegal for people to discriminate against homosexuals when providing goods and services.]
[FALSE – That law wasn’t passed until 1994.]
[TRUE – The Disability Discrimination Act was passed in 1995 to help prevent discrimination against disabled people.]
[FALSE – Civil partnerships for same-sex couples became law in 2005, but this didn’t give them the same rights as heterosexual couples. Same-sex marriage didn’t arrive until 2014.]

Paper 9
1. Last year I was invited to meet Pope Francis, so Shahnawaz and myself travelled out to Rome. It was truly the pinnacle of my life so far.
2. The sense of occasion was awe-inspiring. I had prepared words to say to His Holiness, but I cried like a baby. I was so nervous and so overcome. It was wonderful.
3. When David was in ACTED base camp in Turkey, he and his colleagues came up with a plan to raise more money for some of the refugees who most needed it.
4. That plan, after David’s death, could have gathered dust. But it was implemented, resulting in hundreds of millions of dollars of extra aid reaching those refugees.
5. David’s good work did not die with him. He was directly involved in a project that has saved thousands.
6. I ask that you reach out with the hand of friendship to people that you don’t know. And you ask questions. You say hello.
7. This is the way that we fight. That is the best way that we can fight against the hatred that terrorists want to sow in our communities.
8. So if we can come together, to learn from each other, to be proud of our individual heritages, but also recognise that other people are proud of their heritages.
9. We stand against terrorism.

15.Theme: HUMAN BEINGS / HUMAN RIGHTS
Aims:
- To define what it means to be human
- To relate human rights to human needs
- To learn historical background of human rights
- To learn the most important terms in the field of human rights
- To know the documents that protect human rights
Time: 100 minutes
Materials: blackboard or chart paper, chalk or markers
STAGE AND AIMS TIME PROCEDURE SKILLS PATTERNS OF INTERACTION MATERIALS
PART 1
What Does It Mean to Be Human?

WELCOME
-to start the workshop
2 min T welcomes Ss, asks how they are

Speaking

T-Ss
Ss-T

Stage 1 WARMER
-to introduce the workshop’s major aims
-to encourage Ss to freely express themselves

5 min.

Write the words "HUMAN" and "RIGHTS" at the top of chart paper or a blackboard. Below the word "human" draw a circle or the outline of a human being.
Ask participants to brainstorm what qualities define a human being and write the words or symbols inside the outline. For example, "intelligence," "sympathy." Speaking/ Writing
T-Ss
Ss-T
T-Ss

blackboard or chart paper, chalk or markers
Stage 2 INTRODUCTION OF THE TOPIC
- to define the term of human rights
5 min.

Next ask participants what they think is needed in order to protect, enhance, and fully develop these qualities of a human being. List their answers outside the circle, and ask participants to explain them. For example, "education," "friendship," "loving family." (Note: Save this list for use in Part B) Speaking/ Writing
T-Ss
Ss-T

blackboard or chart paper, chalk or markers
Stage 3 DISCUSSION

7 min.
• What does it mean to be fully human? How is that different from just "being alive" or "surviving"?
• Based on this list, what do people need to live in dignity?
• Are all human beings essentially equal? What is the value of human differences?
• Can any of our "essential" human qualities be taken from us? For example, only human beings can communicate with complex language; are you human if you lose the power of speech?
• What happens when a person or government attempts to deprive someone of something that is necessary to human dignity?
• What would happen if you had to give up one of these human necessities? Speaking

Ss-Ss
Ss-T
T-Ss

Stage 4 EXPLANATION
-to generate interest in the topic

7 min.

Explain that everything inside the circle relates to human dignity, the wholeness of being human. Everything written around the outline represents what is necessary to human dignity. Human rights are based on these necessities.
Read these sentences from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and explain that this document sets the standard for how human beings should behave towards one another so that everyone’s human dignity is respected:
...recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of the freedom, justice, and peace in the world...
Preamble
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Article 1
Universal Declaration of Human Rights Writing/
Speaking

T-Ss
Ss –T

PART 2
What Is a Right?
Stage 1 5 min.
Brainstorm for the many meanings "right" can have (e.g., "correct," "opposite of left," "just.") Consider common expressions like "We’re within our rights" or "You have no right to say that." Record these different meanings on the board. What is the meaning of "right" when we speak of a human right? Writing/
speaking
Ss – Ss
blackboard or chart paper, chalk or markers

Stage 2
-to allow Ss for exchanging their ideas and reflective thinking
7 min.

In small groups or all together, brainstorm a definition for human rights and write these possibilities on the board. Try to evolve a definition that everyone can agree upon and write it on a chart sheet by itself.
Writing/
Speaking

Ss – Ss

pieces of paper, pens
Stage 3 7 min.
Write on the board this definition of human rights:
Human rights belong to all people regardless of their sex, race, color, language, national origin, age, class, religion, or political beliefs. They are universal, inalienable, indivisible, and interdependent.
• What is meant by universality? By inalienable? By indivisible? By interdependent? Ask participants to look up these terms in a dictionary or in A Human Rights Glossary, Part V, "Appendices," and explain their meaning to the group. Speaking
T – Ss
Ss – Ss
Ss – T
blackboard or chart paper, chalk or markers
Stage4
CONCLUDING ANALYSIS
-to sum up the 2nd part of the workshops 5 min. Look back at the list of qualities that define a human generated in Part A.
Write "SURVIVAL/SUBSISTENCE," "HUMAN DIGNITY," and "CONVENIENCES AND LUXURIES" on another chart or blackboard. Discuss the meaning of these terms.
Consider the chart made in Part A. Place each item listed as necessary to fully develop human qualities under one of these headings. For example, is education necessary to survival? To human dignity? Is education a convenience or a luxury? Speaking
T – Ss
blackboard or chart paper, chalk or markers
Stage 5
DISCUSSION 7 min • Should human rights address only what a human being needs to survive? Why or why not?
• Should human rights also protect those things you classified under "conveniences and luxuries"? Why or why not?
• Some people in the world have only what is necessary to survive while others have luxury and convenience. Is this situation just? Is it a human rights violation?
• Can something be done to equalize the enjoyment of human dignity? Should something be done? If so, how? And by whom? Speaking
T – Ss

PART 3
What Is a Universal Right?
- to give a historical background 5 min. Read the comments of Eleanor Roosevelt, Chair of the UN commission that drafted the UDHR, on the importance of universal human rights standards:
Where, after all, do universal rights begin? In small places, close to home – so close and so small that they cannot be seen on any maps of the world. Yet they are the world of the individual person; the neighbourhood he lives in; the school or college he attends; the factory, farm or office where he works. Such are the places where every man, woman, and child seeks equal justice, equal opportunity, equal dignity without discrimination. Unless these rights have meaning there, they have little meaning anywhere. Without concerned citizen action to uphold them close to home, we shall look in vain for progress in the larger world.
Eleanor Roosevelt
The Great Question, 1958 Listening T – Ss

Stage 1 DISCUSSION

7 min. Discuss this passage:
• What do you think Eleanor Roosevelt means by "universal rights"?
• Some people feel that universal values or standards of behaviour are impossible. What do you think?
• Why do you think the UN chose the word universal instead of the word international when naming the UDHR?
• Paraphrase the final sentence of the quotation. What does it say about individual responsibility for human rights? What do you think Eleanor Roosevelt means by "concerned citizen action to uphold" rights close to home? Speaking/
T – Ss
Ss – T
Stage 2 INTRODUCTION TO THE UDHR
15 min. Introduce the UDHR, explaining that this document was intended to offer all people in all situations the equal justice, opportunity, and dignity of which Eleanor Roosevelt spoke. Then give a brief history of the UDHR. See Paper I, A Short History of Human Rights for background information or use this as a reading.
Introduce the concepts of moral, legal, and natural rights. See Paper II, A Human Rights Glossary. Are human rights necessarily legal rights? Speaking/
Listening T – Ss

Stage 3
DISCUSSION 15 min. Pose the question "What does it mean to be alive?"
• When does life begin? When does life end?
• Should the right to be living ever be taken away by the state?
• Is the right to live a human right?
• When do human rights begin and end?
Discuss the relationship between human dignity, human rights, and the concept of "humane treatment." Speaking/
T – Ss
Ss – Ss
Ss – T

Paper I
ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, AND CULTURAL RIGHTS AS HUMAN RIGHTS: HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
Long before human rights were written down in international documents and national constitutions, people revealed their commitment to principles of propriety, justice, and caring through cultural practices and oral traditions. Basic rights and responsibilities, such as the right to food and the golden rule of „Do unto others as you would have them do unto you,” revolved around family, tribe, religion, class, community, or state.
The earliest attempts of literate societies to write about rights and responsibilities date back more than 4,000 years to the Babylonian Code of Hammurabi. This Code, the Old and New Testaments of the Bible, the Analects of Confucius, the Koran, and the Hindu Vedas are five of the oldest written sources which address questions of people duties, rights, and responsibilities. In addition, the Inca and Aztec codes of conduct and justice and the Iroquois Constitution are Native American sources dating back well before the eighteenth century. Other pre-World War II documents, such as the English Bill of Rights, the US Constitution and Bill of Rights, and the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen, focused on civil and political rights. They concentrated on the rights of citizens to equality, liberty, and due process and of participation in the political life of their community and society through activities such as voting.
At the end of World War II, citizens working through nongovernmental organizations urged the creators of the United Nations system to include the promotion of a spectrum of human rights in the UN Charter. These are rights to which all people are entitled, regardless of who they are or where they live. The United Nations created a Com mission on Human Rights in 1946. Forcefully led by Eleanor Roosevelt, the Commission drafted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). It includes fundamental rights to life, liberty, and security as well as a broad range of civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights.
On December 10, 1948, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted unanimously by 48 members of the United Nations, with eight countries abstaining.
Today, the promotion of human rights is guided by what is referred to as the International Bill of Rights. It includes the UDHR and two treaties the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights. These treaties elaborate on rights identified in the UDHR and, when adopted by individual states, have the force of law. Each treaty provides for independent experts who monitor governments and requires periodic reporting by governments to ensure that they are following treaty provisions.
Economic, social, and cultural rights, are specified in Articles 16 and 22-29 of the UDHR. They identify an impressive list of human rights concerns and refer to:
• marriage and family;
• work and leisure (free choice of employment, just conditions of work, equal pay for equal work, just remuneration, freedom to form and join trade unions, and rest);
• a standard of living adequate for food, shelter, clothing, medical care, and social services;
• security in case of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, and old age;
• special care and assistance in motherhood and childhood;
• education (free and compulsory elementary education, equal access based on merit, parental choice, and full development of the human personality);
• participation in the cultural life of one’s community;
• protection of one’s own literary, scientific, and artistic productions;
• social and international order that enables these human rights to be realized; and
• one’s duties to one’s community.
The United States has long attended to some of these economic, social, and cultural rights. For example, during the Great Depression, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) sought to save our struggling economic system and implement his vision of economic and social justice. In a 1937 speech in Chicago, FDR declared, „I see one-third of a nation ill-housed, ill-clad, and ill-nourished... The test of our progress is not whether we add more to the abundance of those who have much; it is whether we provide enough for those who have too little.” Four years later, in his State of the Union Address, FDR spoke inspiringly of a world with four major freedoms: freedom of speech and religion and freedom from want and fear (See p. vi).
During Roosevelt’s presidency and in the years since, the United States has sought to respond to these economic and social needs with new policies. These have included health insurance programs, social security insurance, unemployment insurance, public works projects, farm supports, expanded educational opportunities, and laws supporting worker rights to organize and strike. However, US government leaders have never presented these to the American people as human rights to which everyone is entitled.
During the years after World War II, the Cold War polarized capitalist and communist countries into East and West, with each emphasizing different types of rights. The United States, proud of its achievements in the areas of civil and political rights, criticized its communist rivals, particularly the Soviet Union, for denying these to their citizens. On its part, the USSR asserted the importance of government in ensuring that all citizens have adequate food, health care, employment, social insurance, and education. Members of the Soviet Union accused the USA of refusing to guarantee these economic and social rights to its citizens. These political stances, however, did not adequately capture the reality that both sides of the East-West conflict were struggling with issues related to the full range of rights.
Other nations, such as Sweden and Denmark, sought to promote both clusters of rights through the establishment of social welfare states. And many of the new nations in Africa and Asia, created since the end of World War II, such as Egypt, the Philippines, South Africa, and Tanzania, wrote constitutions embodying the wide range of principles found in the UDHR. They have sought to establish development strategies reflecting a commitment to these rights.
However, as we look across the globe, it is evident that we are far from achieving the goals of justice and human dignity for all. Yes, there have been popular movements towards democratization in many parts of the world, with elected leaders replacing dictators. Yes, there have been advances in education, health care, and sanitation. Nevertheless, among the 4.4 billion people who live in developing countries, three-fifths still have no access to basic sanitation, almost one-third are without safe drinking water, one-quarter lack adequate housing, one-fifth live beyond reach of modern health services, one-fifth of the children do not reach grade five in school, and one-fifth are undernourished.
Almost all of the world’s nations have indicated a commitment to achieving full economic, social, and cultural rights by agreeing to the United Nations’ international covenant on these rights. The United States has not; it appears unwilling to conduct the self-scrutiny that would be required.
The results of this lack of commitment leave the United States with much to do. One US child in five lives in official poverty, between 1.2 and 2 million people are homeless during any year, 40 million are without health insurance, and the number of people turning to emergency food shelves and soup kitchens for their meals is rapidly growing.
Human rights are universal, indivisible, interdependent, and inalienable. Therefore, the enhancement of all rights: civil, political, economic, social, and cultural must be our goal.
SOURCE: Written by Gwen Willems, College of Education and Human Development, University of Minnesota, and David Shiman, Center for World Education, University of Vermont.

Paper II
A HUMAN RIGHTS GLOSSARY
CHILD LABOR: Work performed by children, often under hazardous or exploitative conditions. This does not include all work done by kids: children everywhere, for example, do chores to help their families. The 1989 UN Convention on the Rights of the Child calls for protection „against economic exploitation and against carrying out any job that might endanger well-being or educational opportunities, or that might be harmful to health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral, or social development” (Article 32).
CIVIL RIGHTS: The rights of citizens to liberty and equality (for example, freedom to access information or to vote).
CIVIL AND POLITICAL RIGHTS: The rights of citizens to liberty and equality; sometimes referred to as first generation rights. Civil rights include freedom to worship, to think and express oneself, to vote, to take part in political life, and to have access to information.
CODIFICATION, codify: Process of reducing customary international law to written form.
COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS: Body formed by the Economic and SOCIAL COUNCIL (ECOSOC) of the UN to deal with human rights; one of the first and most important international human rights bodies.
CONVENTION: Binding agreement between states; used synonymously with TREATY and COVENANT. Conventions are stronger than DECLARATIONS because they are legally binding for governments that have signed them. When the UN GENERAL ASSEMBLY adopts a convention, it creates international norms and standards. Once a convention is adopted by the UN General Assembly, MEMBER STATES can then RATIFY the convention, promising to uphold it. Governments that violate the standards set forth in a convention can then be censured by the UN.
CONVENTION ON THE ELIMINATION OF ALL FORMS OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN (adopted 1979; entered into force 1981): The first legally binding international document prohibiting discrimination against women and obligating governments to take affirmative steps to advance the equality of women. Abbreviated CEDAW.
CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD (adopted 1989; entered into force 1990): Convention setting forth a full spectrum of civil, cultural, economic, social, and political rights for children. Abbreviated CRC.
COVENANT: Binding agreement between states; used synonymously with CONVENTION and TREATY. The major international human rights covenants, both passed in 1966, are the INTERNATIONAL COVENANT ON CIVIL AND POLITICAL RIGHTS (ICCPR) and the INTERNATIONAL COVENANT ON ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL RIGHTS (ICESCR).
CULTURAL RIGHTS: The right to preserve and enjoy one’s cultural identity and development.
CUSTOMARY INTERNATIONAL LAW: Law that becomes binding on states although it is not written, but rather adhered to out of custom; when enough states have begun to behave as though something is law, it becomes law „by use”; this is one of the main source of international law.
DECLARATION: Document stating agreed upon standards but which is not legally binding. UN conferences, like the 1993 UN Conference on Human Rights in Vienna and the 1995 World Conference for Women in Beijing, usually produce two sets of declarations: one written by government representatives and one by NONGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (NGOs). The UN GENERAL ASSEMBLY often issues influential but legally NON-BINDING declarations.
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL: A UN council of 54 members concerned principally with the fields of population, economic development, human rights, and criminal justice. This high-ranking body receives and discharges human rights reports in a variety of circumstances. Abbreviated ECOSOC.
ECONOMIC RIGHTS: Rights that concern the production, development, and management of material for the necessities of life. See SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC RIGHTS.
ENVIRONMENTAL, CULTURAL, AND DEVELOPMENTAL RIGHTS: Sometimes referred to as third generation rights, these rights recognize that people have the right to live in a safe and healthy environment and that groups of people have the right to cultural, political, and economic development.
FREE-TRADE ZONE: An industrial area in which a country allows foreign companies to import material for production and export finished goods without paying significant taxes or duties (fees to the government). A free-trade zone thus decreases a company's production costs.
HUMAN RIGHTS: The rights people are entitled to simply because they are human beings, irrespective of their citizenship, nationality, race, ethnicity, language, sex, sexuality, or abilities; human rights become enforceable when they are codified as conventions, covenants, or treaties, or as they become recognized as customary international law.
INALIENABLE: Refers to rights that belong to every person and cannot be taken from a person under any circumstances.
INDIVISIBLE: Refers to the equal importance of each human rights law. A person cannot be denied a right because someone decides it is „less important” or „non-essential.”
INTERDEPENDENT: Refers to the complimentary framework of human rights law. For example, your ability to participate in your government is directly affected by your right to express yourself, to get an education, and even to obtain the necessities of life.
International bill of rights: The combination of these three documents: the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR).
International Covenant on CIVIL and POLITICAL Rights (Adopted 1966, entered into force 1976): Convention that declares that all people have a broad range of civil and political rights. One of three components of the International BILL OF RIGHTS. Abbreviated ICCPR.
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (Adopted 1966, entered into force 1976): Convention that declares that all people have a broad range of economic, social, and cultural rights. One of three components of the International BILL OF RIGHTS. Abbreviated ICESCR.
INTERNATIONAL LABOR OFFICE: Established in 1919 as part of the Versailles Peace Treaty to improve working conditions and promote social justice; the ILO became a Specialized Agency of the UN in 1946. Abbreviated ILO.
MAQUILADORA: A factory, often foreign-owned, that assembles goods for export. From Spanish, the word is pronounced mah-kee-lah-DOH-rah. It is usually shortened to maquila (mah-KEE-lah).
MEMBER STATES: Countries that are member of the United Nations.
NON-BINDING: A document, like a DECLARATION, that carries no formal legal obligations. It may, however, carry moral obligations or attain the force of law as INTERNATIONAL CUSTOMARY LAW.
NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS: Organizations formed by people outside of government. NGO’s monitor the proceedings of human rights bodies such as the COMMISSION ON human rights and are the „watchdogs” of the human rights that fall within their mandate. Some are large and international (e.g., the Red Cross, Amnesty International, the Girl Scouts); others may be small and local (e.g., an organization to advocate people with disabilities in a particular city; a coalition to promote women’s rights in one refugee camp). NGO’s play a major role in influencing UN policy, and many of them have official consultative status at the UN. Abbreviated NGOs.
POLITICAL RIGHTS: The right of people to participate in the political life of their communities and society such as by voting for their government.
RATIFICATION, RATIFY: Process by which the legislative body of a state confirms a government’s action in signing a treaty; formal procedure by which a state becomes bound to a treaty after acceptance.
SIGN: In human rights the first step in ratification of a treaty; to sign a DECLARATION, CONVENTION, or one of the COVENANTS constitutes a promise to adhere to the principles in the document and to honor its spirit.
SOCIAL RIGHTS: Rights that give people security as they live together and learn together, as in families, schools, and other institutions.
SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC RIGHTS: Rights that give people social and economic security, sometimes referred to as security-oriented or second-generation rights. Examples are the right to food, shelter, and health care. There is disagreement whether the government is obligated to provide these benefits.
STATE: Often synonymous with „country”; a group of people permanently occupying a fixed territory having common laws and government and capable of conducting international affairs.
STATES PARTY(IES): Those countries that have RATIFIED a COVENANT or a CONVENTION and are thereby bound to conform to its provisions.
TREATY: Formal agreement between states that defines and modifies their mutual duties and obligations; used synonymously with CONVENTION. When CONVENTIONS are adopted by the UN GENERAL ASSEMBLY, they create legally binding international obligations for the member states who have signed the treaty. When a national government RATIFIES a treaty, the articles of that treaty become part of its domestic legal obligations.
UNITED NATIONS CHARTER: Initial document of the UN setting forth its goals, functions, and responsibilities; adopted in San Francisco in 1945.
UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY: One of the principal organs of the UN, consisting of all member states. The General Assembly issues DECLARATIONS and adopts CONVENTIONS on human rights issues. The actions of the General Assembly are governed by the CHARTER OF THE UNITED NATIONS.
UNIVERSAL: Refers to the application of human rights to all people everywhere regardless of any distinction.
UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS (1948): Primary UN document establishing human rights standards and norms. Although the declaration was intended to be NON-BINDING, through time its various provisions have become so respected by STATES that it can now be said to be CUSTOMARY INTERNATIONAL LAW. Abbreviated UDHR.
Source: Adapted from Julie Mertus et. al., Local Action/Global Change and the Minnesota Partners in Human Rights Resource Notebook.

16.Theme: DIFFERENT DOES NOT MEAN THE SAME – ALBATROS ISLAND
Aims:
- Explaining the role of culture and cultural origins in the process of building our own image as well as an image of other people
- Realising the consequences of viewing other people through ‘cultural glasses’
- Reflection on cultural diversities and their impact on people’s relations
- Building an attitude of understanding and tolerance towards other people
Time: 45 min.
STAGE & AIMS TIME PROCEDURE SKILLS PATTERNS OF INTERACTION MATERIALS
Stage 1 WELCOME
- to start the workshop 2 min. T welcomes Ss, asks how they are Speaking T – Ss
Ss – T
Stage 2 SETTING THE SCENE
- to prepare the
classroom 3 min. Ss are asked to sit on chairs set in the form of a circle. In the middle of the circle there is one empty chair. Speaking T – Ss
Ss – Ss chairs
Stage3
INTRODUCTION
- to introduce the topic of the mini-play 1 min. T tells Ss to imagine that they have just come to Albatros Island to pay a study visit. They are to meet the island’s inhabitants ( 2 other students) Speaking T – Ss
Stage 4
A MINI–PLAY
PART 1
- to get ready for the mini-play 5 min. The two students ( a boy & a girl) leave the classroom to prepare themselves for the mini- play.
Speaking T – Ss
Stage 5
A MINI–PLAY PART 2
-to get to know the two inhabitants of the island 3 min. The girl and the boy come back to the classroom murmuring a monotonous melody. The boy is wearing shoes and the girl is barefoot. They enter the circle. The girl follows the boy at a certain distance. She carries the bowl with peanuts, which she puts under an empty chair.
Non – verbal language Ss – Ss a chair,
a bowl with peanuts
Stage 6
A MINI–PLAY
PART 3
-to get involved in an interaction with the two inhabitants 5 min. The boy & the girl walk inside the circle welcoming the other Ss by giving a slight bow. Then, they approach the Ss, grasp their feet and put them on the floor. The point is that all of the Ss’ feet must have a contact with the floor. The boy touches only other boys’ feet and the girl touches both the boys and the girls’ feet.
All the activities are done in silence; to communicate with each other and the remaining Ss they use non-verbal language (eye contact, touching, murmuring, nodding).
Non – verbal language Ss – Ss
Stage 7
A MINI–PLAY
PART 4
-to watch the two inhabitants’ habits 2 min. Then, the boy sits on the chair and the girl kneels down on the floor next to the boy. She gives him the bowl with peanuts. Having eaten only a few (smacking loudly), he gives the rest of the nuts to the girl and she starts eating. Having finished the meal, the boy puts his hand on the girl’s neck and she bends three times touching the floor each time.
Non – verbal language Ss – Ss a chair,
a bowl with peanuts
Stage 8
A MINI–PLAY
PART 5
-to finish the mini-play 2 min. After a short while, they stand up giving a slight bow to the rest of the Ss and leave the classroom.
Non – verbal language Ss – Ss
Stage 9
AN AFTER– PLAY DEBATE
- to let Ss express their opinions
- to reflect on the mini-play 5 min. T asks Ss to describe what they have just seen. Some exemplary questions to elicit a discussion:
What can you say about the prevailing culture on the Albatros Island?
Would you like to live there?
How would your life as a man and as a woman look like? Speaking T – Ss
Ss – Ss
Ss – T
Stage 10
SOLUTION
-to explain the role of culture and cultural origins in the process of building our own image as well as an image of other people
-to reflect on cultural diversities and their impact on people’s relations 3 min. T tells Ss how life on the island really looks like. Some facts about Albatros Island’s inhabitants ( attachment nr1) Reading/
Speaking T – Ss attachment nr1
Stage 11
A FOLLOW–UP DISCUSSION
- to make Ss realise the consequences of viewing other people through ‘cultural glasses’
- to build understanding and tolerance towards other people 14 min. Having explained the way of living on Albatros Island, T initiates a discussion. Suggested questions & remarks for T in attachment nr 2.
Speaking T – Ss
Ss – Ss
Ss – T attachment
nr 2

MATERIALS TO THE LESSON
Attachement nr 1 (Albatros Island) Some facts about Albatros Island’s inhabitants.
People on the island live peaceful and happy life. The most important goddess is Mother Earth, which is worshipped all the time. Having a physical contact with the Earth is considered a great privilage. That is why, inhabitants respect their guests by making sure that their feet touch the ground. Thanks to it, they can benefit from cosmic energy from the inside of the Earth. Women on the island are privilaged as they give life the similar way as Mother Earth. Men must go first at some distance before women to protect them from potential danger (snakes, etc.). They also have to taste food before women eat it. Women, in contrast to men, benefit from sitting directly on the ground in order to be close to Mother Earth. According to the ritual, a man can only experience more intense contact with the Earth by putting his hands on a woman’s neck while she touches the ground with her forehead. Only in this way can they take cosmic energy from the Earth. This ceremonial can be offered by a woman to a man when she respects him. Besides this ritual men are not allowed to touch women without their permission.
Attachement nr 2 (Albatros Island)
Questions to a follow – up discussion
1) How have your cultural experiences influenced on viewing the way of living on the island?
2) What factors have an impact on perceiving reality and other people?
3) Do you think that issues crucial for you ( like being an emancipated woman) affected the way of interpretation of certain facts?
4) Have you ever experienced a similar situation when you falsely understood certain facts?
5) Having listened to a story about life on Albatros Island, would you like to change your mind and want to live on the Island?
6) Some cultural practices are more and some less acceptable. What is the reason?

Remarks for the teacher
Students sometimes strongly emphasise lack of sex equality. The teacher’s task is to direct the discussion towards the main topic, namely, the impact of our origin on seeing others. It must be underlined that this is mainly our cultural origin which affects our interpretation of different cultures, values and regulations. However, the teacher should mention that there are various causes of conflicts or misunderstandings, not necessarily ones having cultural background.

17.Theme: EUROPEAN ME VS THE COLONISED STRANGER. AT THE CROSSROADS OF DIFFERENT CULTURES (JOSEPH CONRAD HEART OF DARKNESS).
Aims:
- Characteristics of the Europeans’ attitude towards African culture in the times of colonization.
- Comprehending the following concepts: adaptive culture shock, acculturation, the stranger, immoralism.
Time: 90 min.
STAGE & AIMS TIME PROCEDURE SKILLS PATTERNS OF INTERCATION MATERIALS
WELCOME
- to start the class 2 min. T introduces the topic of the lesson, comments on it & presents the stages of the lesson Speaking T – Ss
Stage 1
INTRODUCTION
-to introduce the most important issues of the novel 3 min. T initiates a conversation on the most crucial, in the students’ opinion, issues of Heart of darkness, e.g. a journey inside Africa, relations between the Europeans and the savage, colonial exploitation, the issue of the evil in relation to Kurtz Speaking T – Ss
Ss– T
Stage 2
THEORY
-to introduce & understand the concepts of: adaptive culture shock, acculturation, the stranger, immoralism 8min. T tells Ss to get familiar with the concepts useful to describe and understand the main character’s attitude towards a different culture the moment he comes across it for the first time. Ss express their opinions, comment. Speaking/reading T – Ss
Ss – T
Ss – Ss
Stage 3
PRACTICE I
- to analyse the fragment in relation to the main character’s feelings while meeting an African culture
- to make Ss work with the new concepts
15 min. T gives Ss hand-outs with instructions. Hand-out nr 1: Ss work with fragments from Heart of Darkness. Ss are to describe feelings a European man experiences while meeting an African culture, how does he perceive the stranger how does the process of acculturation go? Ss answer the questions using the concepts they got familiar with at the beginning of the lesson. Reading/speaking Ss – Ss
Ss – T Hand-outs nr 1 with fragments from Heart of Darkness and the teacher’s instructions
Stage 4
STUDENTS’ ACCOUNTS AND A FOLLOW-UP DISCUSSION (incorporating the whole novel if Ss have read it)
-to let Ss share their opinions after analysing the fragments from the novel
-to draw conclusions 12 min. T initiates and leads a conversation. During the lesson a schematic note is to be completed ( a sample of such a scheme is attached to a hand-out nr 1). Speaking/discussion Ss – Ss
Ss – T
T – Ss Hand-outs nr 1
Stage5
PRACTICE II
- to understand Kurtz’s points of view as a European man 10/15 min. Hand-out nr 2: Ss are given fragments from Heart of Darkness. Their task is to show Kurtz’s reasoning as a representative of the European civilisation. Reading Ss Hand-outs nr 2 (with fragments from Heart of Darkness and the teacher’s instructions
Stage 6
STUDENTS’ ACCOUNTS AND A FOLLOW-UP DISCUSSION (incorporating the whole novel provided Ss have read it)
-to let Ss share their opinions after analysing the fragments from the novel
-to conlude 10 min. T initiates and leads a conversation. During the lesson a schematic note is to be completed ( a sample of such a scheme is attached to a hand-out nr 1). Speaking/discussion Ss – Ss
Ss – T
T – Ss Hand-outs nr 2
Stage 7
BROADENING THE ISSUE OF THE STRANGER
-to widen Ss’ knowledge on the issue of brainless relations between the Europeans and the Africans 15 min. If Ss have read the whole novel, a discussion revolves around other examples showing relations between the Europeans and the Africans .
If Ss haven’t read the whole novel, T reads the chosen fragments ( e.g. thoughtless exploitation, the painting Inferno, Kurtz’s behaviour in the heart of the African continent.
Listening/speaking Ss – Ss
Ss – T
T – Ss Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad
Stage 8
SUMMARY
- to sum up the main issues raised during the lesson 5min. T tells Ss to go back to the concept of culture shock. Ss answer the question: What are the indications of culture shock in the main characters’ lives in the novel? Speaking T – Ss
Ss – T
Ss – Ss
Stage 9
HOMEWORK
-to reflect on the content of the novel and the film 1 min. T sets homework. Ss are to watch a film Apocalypse now by Francis Ford Coppola and compare a relation Me vs the stranger in the novel by Joseph Conrad and in the film by Francis Ford Coppola Watching T – Ss
Ss – Ss
Ss – T
MATERIALS TO THE LESSON
Attachement nr 1
Text 1
The concept of culture shock ( Source: Multicultural education. Non-formal Project Academy The Youth in Action)
The concept of culture shock was introduced by an anthropologist Kalvero Oberg in 1954. Since then there have been a numer of models describing this phenomenon. According to Oberg, a culture shock is a psychosomatic disorder caused by a prolonged contact with a different and unknown culture. As a result of the clash of cultures there is tension, strong stress reactions and a feeling of confusion and helplessness resulting from ignorance of symbols and rituals. Besides, culture shock may cause health problems. The greater the cultural differences, the stronger the response . Consequently, the more hostile attitude towards the different environment.
Another concept was suggested by Peter Adler in 1987 as an alternative to the Oberg’s one. According to Adler, culture shock is a process which consists of five educational-developmental stages, which can bring both negative and positive implications. Having crossed such a process enables someone to work out bicultural or multicultural identity. This, in turn, makes a chance of having a successful life both in a native and a newly–acquired culture.
Winkelman defines cultural shock as a multidimensional phenomenon resulting from numerous stresses which occur while meeting a different culture. This kind of experience takes place on several levels: physical, cognitive, psychological and social. In a new cultural environment, a person is exposed to a huge number of new stimuli: a different climate, different air humidity, different temperature, water ,food, more or less daylight or acoustic triggers, etc. A human body is constantly bombarded with unknown incentives which can lead to tiredness, headaches or gastric disorders. A human brain also needs to process loads of new information and stimuli, which makes it overtired. Functioning in a new culture requires constant cognitive effort, continuous analysis and drawing conclusions, interpreting a language, social context and nonverbal communication. The change from an automatic and unconscious living in an indigenous culture into functioning which demands a lot of effort and concentration in a new culture must be extremely exhausting. It undoubtedly results in physical, mental and emotional distress, and consequently, it causes the desire to be isolated from social contact.
Life of a human being in a network of social connections also undergoes changes, a person’s role is being changed. A man has been a cultural expert in their own country while here, in the new culture, he seems to be like a child who does not understand the context. An adult person in new cultural surroundings becomes a totally dependent individual. He is forced to ask for the simplest things, like for help in everyday chores. He needs to learn how to live from the very beginning. This is even more difficult as he already knows all the rules and regulations which apply in his own culture, and are far more different from the new ones.
Mental functioning of a man, his self-esteem, identity, sense of well-being and life satisfaction are closely related to a person’s functioning in a given cultural system. Being deprived from the contact with this system leads to a feeling of confusion, loss and inadequacy. Such feelings arise from the sense of incompatibility of these two systems and the impression that the new culture is contrary to personal views about good, beauty, morality, logic and normality.
https://mfiles.pl/pl/index.php/Szok kulturowy
Culture shock is a phenomenon which occurs at the crossroads of cultures involving the clash of instilled manifestations of culture with the new surroundings. The transition of this phase of the adaptation process (acculturation) enables the development of a multicultural identity and ability to function in several cultures (according to Adler).
Cultural shock model according to Oberg
The concept of culture shock was developed by the anthropologist Kalvero Oberg in 1954. This is the second phase of the adaptation process among those that he distinguishes (the others are respectively in the order: honeymoon, revival and matching). Oberg defined a cultural shock as a disorder of psychosomatic functioning caused by a prolonged contact with a different and unknown culture. As a result of the clash of cultures there is tension, strong stress reactions and a feeling of confusion and helplessness resulting from ignorance of symbols and rituals.
Moreover, culture shock can cause health problems. The greater the cultural differences, the stronger the response, and thus the more hostile attitude towards the environment.
People experiencing shock initially reject the new environment, and then in the regression process they idealise the culture from which they originate.
It is relatively easy to recognise some manifestations of culture in specific situations, but elements of the value system acquired during childhood usually make it difficult to properly identify symbols and behaviors in a different culture.
To eliminate this problem one should learn the learned values in a new culture.

Text 2
Concepts for use in the analysis and interpretation of fragments of the "Heart of Darkness"
The stranger - (a word written in a capital letter) in cultural reflection someone who for various reasons (religious, national, racial, sexual) does not adhere to the widely recognized, rooted in a tradition norm. The level of openness and tolerance of a given culture is measured by the degree of acceptance of another.
Symbolic violence – violence in the sphere of culture, in contrast to physical violence, for example on colonized nations, ethnic and sexual minorities, who were taken away the right to be themselves and whom binding cultural standards were imposed on.

Hand-out nr 1
At the crossroads of cultures
[1] This one was almost featureless, as if still in the making, with an aspect of monotonous grimness. The edge of a colossal jungle, so dark-green as to be almost black, fringed with white surf, ran straight, like a ruled line, far, far away along a blue sea whose glitter was blurred by a creeping mist. The sun was fierce, the land seemed to glisten and drip with steam. Here and there greyish-whitish specks showed up clustered inside the white surf, with a flag flying above them perhaps. Settlements some centuries old, and still no bigger than pinheads on the untouched expanse of their background[...].
“Going up that river was like traveling back to the earliest beginnings of the world, when vegetation rioted on the earth and the big trees were kings. An empty stream, a great silence, an impenetrable forest. The air was warm, thick, heavy, sluggish. There was no joy in the brilliance of sunshine. The long stretches of the waterway ran on, deserted, into the gloom of overshadowed distances. On silvery sand-banks hippos and alligators sunned themselves side by side. The broadening waters flowed through a mob of wooded islands; you lost your way on that river as you would in a desert, and butted all day long against shoals, trying to find the channel, till you thought yourself bewitched and cut off for ever from everything you had known once—somewhere—far away—in another existence perhaps[....]
[2] Trees, trees, millions of trees, massive, immense, running up high; and at their foot, hugging the bank against the stream, crept the little begrimed steamboat, like a sluggish beetle crawling on the floor of a lofty portico. It made you feel very small, very lost, and yet it was not altogether depressing, that feeling[...]The reaches opened before us and closed behind, as if the forest had stepped leisurely across the water to bar the way for our return. We penetrated deeper and deeper into the heart of darkness. It was very quiet there. At night sometimes the roll of drums behind the curtain of trees would run up the river and remain sustained faintly, as if hovering in the air high over our heads, till the first break of day. Whether it meant war, peace, or prayer we could not tell.
[ 3] We penetrated deeper and deeper into the heart of darkness. It was very quiet there. At night sometimes the roll of drums behind the curtain of trees would run up the river and remain sustained faintly, as if hovering in the air high over our heads, till the first break of day. Whether it meant war, peace, or prayer we could not tell. The dawns were heralded by the descent of a chill stillness; the wood-cutters slept, their fires burned low; the snapping of a twig would make you start. We were wanderers on a prehistoric earth, on an earth that wore the aspect of an unknown planet. We could have fancied ourselves the first of men taking possession of an accursed inheritance, to be subdued at the cost of profound anguish and of excessive toil. But suddenly, as we struggled round a bend, there would be a glimpse of rush walls, of peaked grass-roofs, a burst of yells, a whirl of black limbs, a mass of hands clapping of feet stamping, of bodies swaying, of eyes rolling, under the droop of heavy and motionless foliage. The steamer toiled along slowly on the edge of a black and incomprehensible frenzy. The prehistoric man was cursing us, praying to us, welcoming us—who could tell? We were cut off from the comprehension of our surroundings; we glided past like phantoms, wondering and secretly appalled, as sane men would be before an enthusiastic outbreak in a madhouse. We could not understand because we were too far and could not remember because we were travelling in the night of first ages, of those ages that are gone, leaving hardly a sign—and no memories.
“The earth seemed unearthly. We are accustomed to look upon the shackled form of a conquered monster, but there—there you could look at a thing monstrous and free. It was unearthly, and the men were—No, they were not inhuman. Well, you know, that was the worst of it—this suspicion of their not being inhuman. It would come slowly to one. They howled and leaped, and spun, and made horrid faces; but what thrilled you was just the thought of their humanity—like yours—the thought of your remote kinship with this wild and passionate uproar. Ugly. Yes, it was ugly enough; but if you were man enough you would admit to yourself that there was in you just the faintest trace of a response to the terrible frankness of that noise, a dim suspicion of there being a meaning in it which you—you so remote from the night of first ages—could comprehend.
[4] What was there after all? Joy, fear, sorrow, devotion, valour, rage—who can tell?—but truth—truth stripped of its cloak of time. Let the fool gape and shudder—the man knows, and can look on without a wink. But he must at least be as much of a man as these on the shore. He must meet that truth with his own true stuff—with his own inborn strength. Principles won’t do. Acquisitions, clothes, pretty rags—rags that would fly off at the first good shake. No; you want a deliberate belief.

Questions to the fragment ‘at the crossroads of cultures’
1. Describe Africa seen by a European man. Characterise his attitude towards this continent.
2. On the basis of paragraph 2, define sensual impressions which prevail in his perception of the African land. Justify your opinion.
3. On the basis of the fragments ( mainly paragraph 2), analyse the attitute of a European man towards the stranger.
Take into consideration the following aspects:
a) an ability to communicate
b) an attempt to define the stranger by means of the contrast: We vs They
c) discovery of human affinity between the Europeans and the savage
4. Define how does an African culture influence the European way of thinking/awareness (paragraph 4).
Complete the below table with the conclusions
Otherness of the African nature & a
European man response to it

Otherness of an African man

A meaning of discovery of human affinity between a European man and an African one

Hand-out nr 2
Kurtz
The original Kurtz had been educated partly in England, and—as he was good enough to say himself—his sympathies were in the right place. His mother was half-English, his father was half-French. All Europe contributed to the making of Kurtz; and by and by I learned that, most appropriately, the International Society for the Suppression of Savage Customs had intrusted him with the making of a report, for its future guidance. And he had written it, too. I’ve seen it. I’ve read it. It was eloquent, vibrating with eloquence, but too high-strung, I think. Seventeen pages of close writing he had found time for! But this must have been before his—let us say—nerves, went wrong, and caused him to preside at certain midnight dances ending with unspeakable rites, which—as far as I reluctantly gathered from what I heard at various times—were offered up to him—do you understand?—to Mr. Kurtz himself. But it was a beautiful piece of writing. The opening paragraph, however, in the light of later information, strikes me now as ominous. He began with the argument that we whites, from the point of development we had arrived at, ‘must necessarily appear to them [savages] in the nature of supernatural beings—we approach them with the might of a deity,’ and so on, and so on. ‘By the simple exercise of our will we can exert a power for good practically unbounded,’ etc., etc. From that point he soared and took me with him. The peroration was magnificent, though difficult to remember, you know. It gave me the notion of an exotic Immensity ruled by an august Benevolence. It made me tingle with enthusiasm. This was the unbounded power of eloquence—of words—of burning noble words. There were no practical hints to interrupt the magic current of phrases, unless a kind of note at the foot of the last page, scrawled evidently much later, in an unsteady hand, may be regarded as the exposition of a method. It was very simple, and at the end of that moving appeal to every altruistic sentiment it blazed at you, luminous and terrifying, like a flash of lightning in a serene sky: ‘Exterminate all the brutes!’ The curious part was that he had apparently forgotten all about that valuable postscriptum, because, later on, when he in a sense came to himself, he repeatedly entreated me to take good care of ‘my pamphlet’ (he called it), as it was sure to have in the future a good influence upon his career.
Questions to the text:
1. Characterise Kurtz based on the attached fragment.
2. Interprete the sense of Kurtz’z report. Explain:
a) What is the symbolic violence written in it?
b) How do you understand the unexpected point?
3. Referring to the whole novel by Joseph Conrad, present and evaluate the white man's colonisation mission.

Put the conclusions in the table
The idea of "superman" in Nietzsche's philosophy (reminding or familiarizing with Nietzsche's views)

Kurtz as an immoralist

Meaning of the report's point in relation to
colonial policy

18.Theme: ALI'S STORY
Aims :
- To develop students' listening skills
- To develop students’ discussion skills
Level : B2
STAGE AND AIMS TIME PROCEDURE SKILLS PATTERNS OF INTERACTION MATERIALS
WELCOME
-to start the class 3 min T greets Ss asks how they are Speaking T - Ss
Ss - T
Stage 1 INTRODUCTION 5 min -T introduces the topic of the lesson.
-T asks Ss to focus on the word ‘refugee’ : Have a whole class discussion :
(What’s the difference between a refugee and an immigrant?/What problems do refugees bring to the countries they go to?/What benefits do refugees bring to the countries they go to?/What rights and benefits should a country give to refugees?
-T takes suggestions from the Ss.
-T gets Ss write their suggestion on the board. Speaking/ Listening/ Speaking
T - Ss
S - T
S - S
Board
Stage 2 VIEWING
A MOVIE-PART I
-to improve understanding skills 7 min T tells the Ss they are going to watch but not hear a short film about an Afghan boy called Ali who is a refugee.
-T shows the film with the sound off twice. Watching T - Ss Computer
Stage 3
COMPREHENSION
-to improve understanding skills
3 min T encourages Ss to tell what they have understood
-T emphasises that it doesn’t matter if they don’t know
-T gives Ss time to compare their answers
-T gets the whole class to retell Ali’s story Listening/ Speaking
T - Ss
S - T
S - S

Stage 4 VIEWING
A MOVIE –PART II
-to improve understanding skills 7 min - T tells Ss that they are now going to watch the film with sound. As they watch and listen they should try to understand what Ali says.
-T shows the film with the sound on twice. Listening T - Ss Computer
Stage 5 CONTROLLED
PRACTICE
-to improve speaking and understanding skills
-to check what Ss have understood 4 min -T encourages Ss to tell what they have understood.
-T emphasises that it doesn’t matter if they don’t know.
-T gives Ss time to compare their answers.
-T gets the whole class to retell Ali’s story. Listening/ Speaking
T - Ss
S - T
S - S
Board
Stage 6 FREER PRACTICE
-to improve speaking and understanding skills
-to provide communicative practise of the target language
6 min -T tells the Ss they are going to work in group of 3 or 4 for discussion task :
-T asks them to discuss how they could welcome children like Ali and help them settle in their country.
-T gives Ss 2 minutes to prepare what they want to say.
-Ss discuss the question in groups.
-T monitors the groups and makes notes of any common errors and particularly good language that T hears. Speaking/ Listening
T - Ss Board
Stage 7 CORRECTION
-to correct any errors heard and to allow the Ss to participate in the correction 4 min -T writes errors on the board - Ss identify and correct the errors
-T writes the particularly good language
- Ss note them on their copybook Speaking/ Listening/ Speaking
T - Ss
S - T
S - S
board
Stage 8
HOMEWORK 1 min T asks the Ss to try and imagine how they would feel in Ali’s situation and write an account in the first person singular based on their experiences. Listening T - Ss

MATERIAL TO THE LESSON
Ali’s story (3:26)
https://vimeo.com/44516196
One of the young people helped by Freedom from Torture has featured in a short animated film for the BBC in which he describes the pain of being separated from his parents and the difficulties he faced adjusting to life in the UK. Ali and his grandmother became separated from his parents as the family attempted to flee Afghanistan when he was only a small child. In the film Ali talks about growing up and going to school in the UK – whilst for a long time not knowing whether his parents were safe.

19.Theme: REFUGEE CRISIS IN EUROPE
Aims:
- To develop students' reading skills
- To develop students’ discussion skills
- To encourage reflection and critical thinking

Level : B 1
STAGE AND AIMS TIME PROCEDURE SKILLS PATTERNS OF INTERACTION MATERIALS
WELCOME
-to start the class 3 min
- T greets Ss asks how they are speaking T - Ss
Ss - T
Stage 1 LEXI
- to improve master of vocabulary 3 min
- T reviews the following vocabulary words and makes sure students know their meanings : asylum/controversial/
expatriates/resettlement/refugee/migrant Reading/
Listening/
Speaking T - Ss
S - T
S - S Board
Stage 2
INTRODUCTION
- to improve speaking and understanding skills 8 min
- T distributes a KWL(“Know, Want to Know, Learned”) chart to each student
- T explains that as the Ss learn about the refugee crisis throughout the course of the lesson, they will complete the KWL chart.
- T asks what they have heard or know about the refugee crisis in Europe
- T takes suggestions from the Ss
- T gets Ss write their suggestion on the board Speaking/
Listening T - Ss
S - T
S - S Worksheet
Board
Stage 3
PAIR WORK
- to improve speaking and understanding skills 4 min
- After determining what the Ss already know, T asks: What do you want to know? What questions do you have?
- T has the Ss turn and talk with a person sitting near them to share additional questions they have
- After sharing with their partner,T has the Ss record their questions under the second column of their KWL Chart Speaking/
Listening T - Ss
S - T
S - S

Stage 4 ENGAGEMENT
WORKING WITH
TEXT
-to improve reading skills 5 min
- T distributes a copy of Background Information
- T has different students take turns reading each section Reading
Speaking/
Listening T - Ss
S - T
S - S Copy
Stage 5 FREER PRACTICE
- to improve speaking and understanding skills
- to provide communicative practise of the target language 10 min
- T engages the Ss in a discussion by asking the following questions: · What did you learn that you didn’t know before? · What surprises you about what you learned about the refugee crisis ? · How do you feel about what you read? · What other questions do you have?
- T emphasises that it doesn’t matter if they don’t know
- T monitors the groups and makes notes of any common errors and any particularly good language that T hears.
Speaking/
Listening T - Ss
S - T
S - S

Stage 6 ERROR
CORRECTION
- to correct any errors heard and to allow the Ss to participate in the correction 5 min
- T writes errors on the board
- Ss identify and correct the errors
- T writes the particularly good language
- Ss note them on their copybook
Reading/
Listening/
Speaking T - Ss
S - T
S - S Board
Stage 7 HOMEWORK 2 min
- T hands out the photo(s)
- T tells the Ss to prepare the photo (What stories do the photos tell that perhaps words do not capture? )
Listening T - Ss Photos
STAGE AND AIMS
2nd class TIME PROCEDURE SKILLS PATTERNS OF INTERACTION MATERIALS
WELCOME
-to start the class 3 min
- T greets Ss asks how they are. Speaking T - Ss
Ss - T
Stage 8 RECAP
- to revise 2 min
- T asks Ss to recapitulate what has been done. Speaking/
Listening T - Ss
S - T
Stage 9 HOMEWORK
CORRECTION
6 min
- T asks Ss for their answers.
- Ss compare with partners.
- T invites Ss to take note Speaking/
Listening T - Ss
S - T
S - S Board

Stage 10
ENGAGEMENT
WORKING WITH
TEXT
- to improve reading skills 4 min
- T divides the Ss into five small groups.
- T distributes a different debater opinion article from “What Can Countries Do to Help Refugees Fleeing to Europe?”
- T instructs groups to read their assigned article
- T gives The Ss time to read the article silently while sitting in their groups.
Reading T - Ss
Press Article
Stage 11
DISCUSSION
- to improve speaking and understanding skills 4min
- T has the Ss spend another 4 minutes discussing their article among themselves. As a group, they are to answer the following questions and take notes:
· What is the perspective of the article? · What evidence does the author provide to make their point? · Are you persuaded by their position or not (i.e. do you agree or disagree)? Speaking/
Listening/
Reading T - Ss
S - T
S - S Press Article
Stage 12
PRESENTATION
- to improve speaking and understanding skills 15min
-T has each small group come to the front of the room, summarize their article and share their responses to the questions.
- Ss note them on their copybook Listening S - T
S - S
Stage 13 FREER PRACTICE
- to improve speaking and understanding skills
- to provide communicative practise of the target language 6min
- T engages the Ss in a class discussion by asking the following questions: · What different perspectives are represented in each of the articles? Where do those perspectives come from? · Do all the articles share a similar perspective or not? Please explain. · Do you think all countries have a responsibility to provide financial assistance or take in refugees? Please explain.
Speaking/
Listening/
T - Ss
S - T
S - S Worksheet
Board

MATERIALS TO THE LESSON: REFUGEE CRISIS IN EUROPE

1.BACKGROUND INFORMATION
WHO are the refugees?
Since the civil war began in Syria in 2011, 7.6 million Syrians have been displaced inside their country and another 4.1 million have fled the country looking for a place to settle. This means that over half of Syria’s total population (11.7 million of the 23 million people) have fled the country or have been driven from their homes. In addition, there are refugees from other war-torn countries in the Middle East as well as people in parts of Africa fleeing dire conditions. Many refugees fleeing civil wars like the one in Syria end up living in adjacent countries in massive, semi-permanent refugee camps because governments in those countries don’t have the infrastructure to fully resettle them into communities.

WHY are they fleeing Syria?
In March 2011, anti-government demonstrations began across Syria against the dictatorship of President Bashar al-Assad, which were part of the broader regional Arab Spring protests. Sunni Muslims, who make up approximately 70% of the Syrian population, have long been disenchanted with President Assad, an Alawite Muslim. Alawites represent 12% of the Syrian population but have dominated the country’s political leadership for the past fifty years. The Syrian regime responded to the demonstrations in brutal ways and began an indiscriminate violent campaign of targeting citizens opposed to Assad’s rule. President Assad has launched rockets in the highly populated suburbs of Damascus and has attacked Syrian civilians with chemical weapons. Many innocent men, women, and children have been gassed to death by their own government. The Syrian civil war between the government and rebel forces, which also includes ISIS and the Nursa Front, has created a severe humanitarian crisis. As of September 2015, it is estimated that over 200,000 Syrians have been killed in the conflict.

WHERE are they going and HOW are they getting there?
Several neighboring countries (Lebanon, Turkey, Jordan and Iraq) have taken in a total of 3.6 million refugees over the past few years. Recently, more refugees than ever before have been arriving in Europe as war, persecution and poverty continue to drive people from their homes. For the most part, the refugees are taking dangerous boat voyages over the Mediterranean and Aegean seas or traveling through the Balkans. The European Union border agency reports a tenfold annual increase in people travelling from Greece on the Western Balkans route; it is estimated that so far this year there have been 350,000 refugees in Europe. Dozens of people, including children, have been killed walking on railway lines on the long trek through Macedonia, Serbia, Croatia and Hungary, which is building a controversial 100-mile long fence to keep them out. A huge proportion of people are continuing to cross the Mediterranean in voyages that have killed more than 2,000 so far this year. The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) also reports that during that time, Germany received the most asylum applications with 188,486 and Hungary received 65,415 applications. Overwhelmed by an influx of refugees, Germany recently set up temporary border restrictions and Austria, Slovakia and the Netherlands have announced similar measures.

WHAT is being done about the crisis?
The process of resettlement and integration of the refugees into new countries is not an easy proposition. Over the past few years, neighboring countries—including Turkey (1.9 million), Lebanon (1.1 million), Jordan (629K), Iraq (249K) and Egypt (132K)—have taken in a bulk of the refugees. A number of non-Middle Eastern countries have accepted or agreed to take in smaller numbers of Syrian refugees, including, to date: Germany (100K), Sweden (50K), the UK (20K), Australia (12K) and Canada (11K). About 1,500 Syrian refugees have been admitted to the United States since the start of the conflict in 2011 and the U.S. had agreed to take in an additional 10,000. However, many groups and organizations have called on the U.S. to take in more refugees and the Obama administration recently announced that they will increase the number of worldwide refugees to 100,000 by 2017. To date, the U.S. has provided $4 billion in humanitarian assistance.

2.Canadians Have a Decision to Make That Will Affect Syrian Refugees

Audrey Macklin is a professor of law and chair in human rights law at the Faculty of Law, University of Toronto.
UPDATED SEPTEMBER 15, 2015, 3:30 AM
The moral distance between Syrian refugees and Canada evaporated with the revelation that Aylan Kurdi’s Canadian aunt made an urgent and futile application to sponsor family members to Canada.
Thousands of Canadians have lined up to privately sponsor Syrian refugees, but they are joining a line that isn’t moving.
Canadian history contains two narratives about our treatment of refugees. The first is captured by the response of Frederick Blair, the Canadian director of immigration, during World War II. Canada, like the United States, denied refuge to the doomed Jewish passengers aboard the S.S. St. Louis. When asked how many Jews Canada should admit, Blair responded “none is too many.” Legal and bureaucratic obstacles erected to exclude Jews did the job. Even in the aftermath of the Holocaust, Canada admitted only a trickle of survivors. Today, Canadians recognize the expression "none is too many" as short-hand for the shameful treatment of Jewish refugees.
The second narrative recounts Canada’s resettlement of 37,000 Hungarians fleeing the Soviet invasion in 1956; 11,000 Czechs following Prague Spring in 1968; 7,000 South Asians expelled from Uganda in 1972; a similar number fleeing Pinochet’s Chile after 1973 and, most famously, the private and government-sponsored resettlement of about 60,000 Vietnamese from 1978 to 1980. Since then, Canada has sustained a system of private and public refugee resettlement. In 1986, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees honored these efforts by awarding the Canadian people the Nansen Medal. In 1999, Canada resettled about 5,000 Kosovars in less than two months.
Amid a drawn-out Canadian election campaign, refugees are suddenly a front-page issue. Critics are clamoring for the government to facilitate the entry of Syrians who have Canadian relatives, and to expand privately and publicly sponsored resettlement. The Conservative government’s recurrent talking point, that Canada is the most generous refugee receiving country in the world, is belied in myriad ways : A pledge to resettle 10,000 Syrians turns out to be a gambit to fill an existing resettlement quota with Syrians, at the expense of refugees from elsewhere. Security and military experts rebut the government’s attempt to blame "security concerns" for falling drastically short of its own quota to date. The declared intent to prioritize "ethnic and religious minorities," is easy-to-read code for Christians and "good" (non-mainstream Sunni) Muslims. When asked to provide data about arrivals, the government produces random numbers that conflate immigrants and refugees, asylum seekers and resettled refugees, Syrians and Iraqis, this year and the last five years, and so on.
Since acquiring a parliamentary majority in 2011, the present government has moved toward dismantling Canada’s in-land asylum system, constricting the private refugee sponsorship regime and minimizing resettlement numbers. The arbitrary bureaucratic hurdles, the extraordinary delays, the refusal to commit resources, the rejection of airlifts and the preference for military action against ISIS over Syrian refugee resettlement is not a departure for Canada under Prime Minister Stephen Harper, but the continuation of a pattern. The government would never dare utter the words "none is too many," but the fact is that barely a trickle of Syrians are arriving, and hasty election promises by the government to expand and/or expedite resettlement cannot be trusted.
Over the past couple of weeks, thousands of Canadians have lined up all over the country to privately sponsor Syrian refugees, but they are joining a line that isn’t moving. The present government lacks the political will to make the system work. Canada’s reputation as a welcoming nation withers when measured against the current response of Germany and a few other western nations — not to mention Lebanon, Turkey and Jordan. But most crucially, Canada is failing when measured against what it has the demonstrated capacity to do.

3.For Security Reasons, Asia Prefers to Stay Silent on the Refugee Crisis in Europe

Pavin Chachavalpongpun is associate professor at Kyoto University’s Center for Southeast Asian Studies.
UPDATED SEPTEMBER 15, 2015, 3:30 AM
In the past weeks, the political crisis in Syria has driven thousands to flee. This gigantic wave of refugees has hit Europe hard. Evidently, even a civilized world can be ill equipped to cope with the humanitarian emergency.
Despite some constraints, Asia could help Europe by providing volunteers with expertise and assisting with donations and fundraising.
Here in Asia, people are watching the refugee crisis from different perspectives. Leading economies, like Japan, have been silent about the massive inflows of refugees into Europe. Indeed, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), also failed to address this urgent issue and to offer anything meaningful to the refugees, despite the fact that it has recently established its first human rights commission. Why?
There are two key reasons behind the indifference of some of Asian nations vis-à-vis the refugee crisis in Europe. First, in Asia, the refugee issue is bound tightly within the discourse of “security.” National security, or the well-being of the state against internal and external threats — such as military invasion, dissidents or terrorism — is of greater importance than human security. Refugees fleeing their home countries to other Asian nations are treated first and foremost as if they are threats to the state. For example, Thailand voluntarily sent a large number of Uighur refugees back to China despite international condemnation.
Australia might serve as an exception in the region. The country has long implemented a tough refugee policy. But a desire to play a greater role in international politics has led Australia to adopt policies that are more favorable to refugees.
Second, in Asia, and particularly Japan, racial homogeneity plays a vital role in its refugee policy. States like Japan continue to promote racial homogeneity to score political points on the basis that refugees could cause social division. This explains why Japan, among other industrial nations, implements a tough policy toward refugees. In 2013, Japan approved only six asylum seekers’ applications for refugee status out of 3,777 cases (0.1 percent approval rate). Three of the six families were from Myanmar.
Despite some constraints on Asia’s part, however, there are still many ways it could help in the refugee crisis in Europe. Japan, for example, has experience handling numerous humanitarian crises caused by natural disasters in which people have been displaced. Southeast Asia itself is also familiar with refugee issues, recently with the case of Muslim Rohingya leaving their homes in western Myanmar. Asian nations should lend their expertise by sending volunteers to work with European governments in the areas of health care and employment and to help monitor the well-being of the refugees.
Asian nations should also donate and assist in fundraising activities to lessen the burdens of the host countries in Europe. They could also help raise awareness of the crisis.
Asia should start making its voice heard at the global stage about the need to rescue vulnerable refugees. Although this may sound odd for some Asian nations that want to bury their own refugee problems, Asia knows full well how its own people — particularly those who have escaped persecution from China's repressive regime and from the Thai junta — have suffered from dire political situations. Thus, there is a legitimate responsibility for Asia to act in defense of Syrian refugees in Europe.
4.Gulf Nations Can Provide Jobs, Which Is Crucial to Syrian Refugees

Ibrahim Fraihat, a senior foreign policy fellow at Brookings Doha Center, is the author of the forthcoming "Unfinished Revolutions: Yemen, Libya and Tunisia After the Arab Spring." He is on Twitter.
UPDATED SEPTEMBER 15, 2015, 3:30 AM
The gulf states generally outline a number of concerns that limit their ability to absorb a large number of Syrian refugees: Expatriates already outnumber locals in many countries, some refugees’ political loyalties pose a security threat, and gulf states have already provided generous financial aid to help with the crisis. While these concerns are valid to a certain extent, they should not prevent gulf states from taking in Syrian refugees. The gulf can do a lot more to alleviate this humanitarian crisis.
Failing to adequately aid the refugees will exacerbate the region’s security issues, as some of those displaced will surely turn to extremism.
Expats outnumbering locals has not prevented gulf states from continuing to bring in more migrant workers. Most gulf states are small and wealthy with rapidly growing local markets, an equation that necessitates importing foreign professionals. The Syrian refugees are generally skilled and can certainly contribute to responding to the gulf states’ market needs.
In fact, there are already hundreds of thousands of Syrians in the gulf states, many of whom were there prior to the Arab uprisings of 2011. It is very likely that some of them have controversial political allegiances. However, there have not been noticeable cases where the security of gulf states has been threatened because of the Syrians living there.
Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates have made large contributions to the United Nations, host governments and N.G.O.s. But the scale of the crisis is overwhelming -- and not just in terms of dollars. The refugees need solutions that come with dignity. They want to earn their living, not survive on handouts. They have suffered immensely, including dispossession. What they need now is to be able to look after their children and relatives who stayed behind. The gulf markets are well positioned to provide dignified work and incomes. Failing to adequately aid the refugees will exacerbate the region’s security issues, as some of those displaced will surely turn to extremism.
5.The Refugee Crisis Presents a Chance for Emerging Countries Like Brazil to Be Players

Oliver Stuenkel is an assistant professor of international relations at Fundação Getulio Vargas in São Paulo, Brazil. He is the author of "The BRICS and the Future of Global Order" and writes about emerging powers on his blog, Post-Western World.
UPDATED SEPTEMBER 15, 2015, 6:49 AM
The countries most affected by the Syrian refugee crisis are Turkey, Jordan, Iraq and Lebanon, home to more than 3.6 million refugees — far more than in Europe, where the number of those seeking shelter makes up less than 0.2 percent of the continent’s population. Europe, Japan and the United States must do more, but developing countries — particularly those with global ambitions — should also make a meaningful contribution to global security by accepting larger numbers of refugees.
Brazil could absorb 50,000 refugees without causing a surge of xenophobia; and it would help the economy.
Latin American governments have announced that they will accept more Syrian refugees, yet the numbers mentioned are paltry. Considering Brazil’s population of 200 million, even doubling the number of refugees the country as accepted (currently standing at less than 8,000) falls short of what should be expected of a country that aims to play a leading role in global affairs – and which is home to more than 10 million people of Arabic descent.
In 1900, 7.3 percent of Brazil's population were immigrants, today it's 0.3 percent and declining. By comparison, the foreign population of countries such the United Kingdom and the United States is more than 10 percent, and in Australia it is above 20 percent. Brazil could absorb 50,000 refugees without causing a surge of xenophobia; and it would help the country's economy by reducing Brazil’s chronic shortage of skilled workers and boosting innovation. Financial support could be requested from richer countries unwilling to take refugees – such as Japan, China and Saudi Arabia.
In the same way, other large countries in Latin America, such as Mexico and Argentina, should recognize that the refugee crisis in the Middle East is not regional, but global, requiring a broad response. As the world is facing its most severe refugee crisis since World War II, there has never been a better moment to assume leadership on the issue to strengthen their case for a more prominent global role.
6.U.S. Can Welcome Thousands More Refugees

William Canny is the executive director of migration and refugee services of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops.
UPDATED SEPTEMBER 16, 2015, 2:12 PM
We are witnessing the results of what Pope Francis, who will be in the United States next week, has called the “globalization of indifference,” as thousands of Syrian refugees pour into Europe. Only now, moved by the image of little Aylan Kurdi — who each of us could picture as our own — dead on a Turkish beach, are the European nations and the United States scrambling to respond to this humanitarian crisis.
The U.S. has provided $4 billion in assistance, but its refugee program could absorb as many as 100,000 Syrians.
The story does not have to end unhappily. The United States can step up and show leadership in addressing this tragedy.

To be sure, the United States has provided about $4 billion to help Syrian refugees, a significant amount. We need to continue to provide that humanitarian and development assistance and to help end the conflict that is producing refugees at a record rate, with a multipronged approach that requires more resources.

In addition, the United States can resettle a much larger number of the 4 million Syrian refugees than the 1,600 we have to date. The U.S. refugee program could absorb as many as 100,000 Syrian refugees if the political will to do so existed.Security checks are in place to ensure that those resettled are not a threat to us. The Catholic Church in the United States, with nearly 100 diocesan Catholic Charities resettlement programs, would stand ready to assist in the effort.

While this number seems high to many, it is not, considering the crisis we face, with millions of Syrian refugees being hosted by Middle Eastern and European countries. The administration’s initial offer to resettle 10,000 Syrians, while positive, pales in comparison to commitments made by other nations, including Germany’s promise to accept 800,000 Syrians over the next few years.

A robust U.S. commitment to the resettlement of Syrian refugees would encourage other reluctant nations, especially those in Europe, to accept more and to keep their doors open until this horrific conflict can be ended. It also would show that the United States is not indifferent to human suffering and remains, as always, a beacon of hope to the world.

7.KWL (KNOW, WANT TO KNOW, LEARNED) CHART
Know Want to know Learned

• KWL (“Know, Want to Know, Learned”) Chart (one for each student)
• Background Information (one for each student)
• “Migrant crisis: Photos of Syrian refugees’ long journey to safety. Part 2: Greece to Hungary”
http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/migrant-crisis-photos-syrian-refugees-long-journey-safety-part-2-greece-hungary-1518886
• “What Can Countries Do to Help Refugees Fleeing to Europe?” (The New York Times Room for Debate, September 15, 2015,
https://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2015/09/15/what-can-countries-do-to-help-refugees-fleeing-to-europe

A young Syrian woman waiting with her family to cross the border in Idomeni , Greece for more than 20 hours Dan Kitwood / Getty Images

A young Syrian boy cries as his father carries him up a steep hill during their walk towards the Macedonian borderWin McNamee/Getty Images

People scramble down a steep hill as they head towards the Macedonian border to have their papers processedDan Kitwood/Getty Images

After crossing the Greek-Macedonian border and having their papers processed, people head out of a transit area towards Gevgelija train station to find transport north to the Serbian borderDan Kitwood/Getty Images

Passengers pack into an overcrowded train from Gevgelija to the Serbian borderDan Kitwood/Getty Images

Children who had crossed from Serbia into Hungary wait for buses to take them to a refugee campDan Kitwood/Getty Images

People wrap themselves in blankets to keep warm at a collection point in Morahalom, Hungary

20.Theme: WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO BE A REFUGEE ?
Aims :
- To develop students' listening skills
- To develop students’ discussion skills
- To encourage reflection and critical thinking

Level : B 2

STAGE AND AIMS
1st class TIME PROCEDURE SKILLS PATTERNS OF INTERACTION MATERIALS
WELCOME
-to start the class 3 min
- T greets Ss asks how they are speaking T - Ss
Ss - T
Stage 1
INTRODUCTION
LEXI
- to generate interest in the topic
- to improve master of vocabulary 8 min
- T introduces this theme
-T asks Ss to focus on the word ‘refugee’ – Ss write anything they think make people become refugees
- T takes suggestions from the Ss
- T gets Ss write their suggestion on the board Speaking/
Listening T - Ss
S - T
S - S Board
Stage 2 LEXI
- to improve master of vocabulary 10 min

- T hands out the worksheet for the Ss to do the excercice
- T asks Ss for their answers
- Ss compare with other Ss
- T invites Ss to take note for correct answers Reading/
Listening/
Speaking T - Ss
S - T
S - S Worksheet
Stage 3 LISTENING
- to improve understanding skills 6 min
- T tells the Ss they are going to watch a little film titled 'What does it mean to be a refugee ?'
- T plays the whole video Listening T - Ss

Computer
Stage 4
DISCUSSION
- to improve speaking and understanding skills
-to check what Ss have understood (reading task) 6 min
- T encourages the Ss to tell what they have understood
- T emphasises that it doesn’t matter if they don’t know
- T gives the Ss time to compare their answers Speaking/
Listening T - Ss
S - T
S - S Board
Stage 5 ERROR
CORRECTION
- to correct any errors heard and to allow the Ss to participate in the correction 5 min
- T writes errors on the board
- Ss identify and correct the errors
- T writes the particularly good language
- Ss note them on their copybook
Reading/
Listening/
Speaking T - Ss
S - T
S - S Board
Stage 6
HOMEWORK 2 min
- T hands out the worksheet
- T tells the Ss to prepare the task 6

Listening T - Ss Worksheet
STAGE AND AIMS
2nd class TIME PROCEDURE SKILLS PATTERNS OF INTERACTION MATERIALS
WELCOME
-to start the class 3 min
- T greets Ss asks how they are. Speaking T - Ss
Ss - T
Stage 7 RECAP
- to revise 3 min
- T asks Ss to recapitulate what has been done. Speaking/
Listening T - Ss
S - T
Stage 8 HOMEWORK
CORRECTION
5 min
- T asks Ss for their answers.
- Ss compare with partners.
- T invites Ss to take note for correct answers. Speaking/
Listening T - Ss
S - T
S - S Board

Stage 9 LISTENING
- to improve speaking and understanding skills 6 min
- T tells the Ss to keep their worksheet
- T tells the Ss they are going to watch again the little film titled 'What does it mean to be a refugee ?'
- T plays the whole video Speaking/
Listening/
Reading T - Ss
S - T
S - S Worksheets
Computer
Stage 10
CONTROLLED
PRACTICE
- to improve speaking and understanding skills 4min
- T asks the students to answer the quiz
- T emphasises that it doesn’t matter if they don’t know
- T gives the Ss time to compare their answers
Speaking/
Listening/
Reading Worksheets
Stage 11 FREER PRACTICE
- to improve speaking and understanding skills
- to provide communicative practise of the target language 14min
- T tells the Ss they are going to work in group of 3 or 4 for task 7 / 8 and guided discussion.
- T gives Ss 2 minutes to prepare what they want to say.
- Ss discuss the questions in groups of 3 or 4.
- T monitors the groups and makes notes of any common errors and any particularly good language that T hears.
Speaking/
Listening/
Reading T - Ss
S - T
S - S Worksheet
Board

Stage 12 ERROR
CORRECTION
-to correct any errors heard and to allow the Ss to participate in the correction 6 min
- T writes errors on the board.
- Ss identify and correct the errors.
- T writes the particularly good language.
- Ss note them on their copybook. Reading/
Listening/
Speaking T - Ss
S - T
S - S Board

MATERIALS TO THE LESSON : WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO BE A REFUGEE?
What does it mean to be a refugee ? (5:42)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=25bwiSikRsI

About 60 million people around the globe have been forced to leave their homes to escape war, violence and persecution. The majority have become Internally Displaced Persons, meaning they fled their homes but are still in their own countries. Others, referred to as refugees, sought shelter outside their own country. But what does that term really mean? Benedetta Berti and Evelien Borgman explain.

Refugee Vocabulary

asylum minority persecution
armed conflict asylum seeker immigrant
refugee flee detention centre border

1. a place where people who have entered a country without the necessary documents can be kept for short periods of time

2. to treat someone unfairly or cruelly over a long period of time because of their race, religious or political beliefs

3. run away from danger

4. an active disagreement between people with opposing opinions or principles where weapons are used

5. a person who has come to a different country in order to live there permanently

6. a national or racial group living in a country or area which contains a larger group of people of a different race or nationality

7.somebody who leaves their own country for their safety, often for political reasons or because of war, and who travels to another country hoping that the government will protect them and allow them to live there

8. a person who has escaped from their own country for political, religious or economic reasons or because of a war

9. protection given by a government to foreigners who have been forced to leave their own countries for political or religious reasons or because of war

10. a line separating two countries, administrative divisions, or other areas

Fill in the grid linking each word to its definition

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Task

Answer the following questions :

1/ Worldwide, approximately how many people have been forced to leave their homes to escape violence and war?
A.100 million
B.60
C.20
D.05

2/ What is the difference between refugees and internally displaced persons (IDP)?
A. Internally displaced persons cross an international border and seek refuge outside of their countries of nationality, while refugees do not
B. Refugees cross an international border and seek refuge outside of their countries of nationality while internally displaced persons do not
C. Internally displaced persons are legally protected by the UN 1951 Convention on the Status of Refugees while refugees are not
D. Refugees are legally protected by the UN 1951 Convention on Asylum Seekers while internally displaced persons are not

3/ According to the international legal definition, a refugee is someone who:
A.Is fleeing war, violence and/or persecution
B.Is fleeing a large scale natural disaster
C.Is fleeing poverty
D.All of the above

4/ An Asylum seeker is:
A.Another word for refugee
B.Another word for internally displaced person
C.Someone who is seeking to be recognized by a host country as a refugee
D.Someone who is seeking to be recognized by a host country as an internally displaced person

5/ Host countries have several obligations towards refugees, such as:
A.Non-refoulement
B.Non-discrimination
C.Recognizing and protecting basic human rights and freedom
D.All of the above

6/ Can you explain the differences between, and common traits of ,refugees and migrants?

7/ Think about a family forced to leave their country to flee war. Explain the main obstacles and challenges they may face along the way.
8/ What can ordinary people do to help families and individuals who have become refugees?

Guided discussion
Refugees have the right to be protected in their host countries. In your view, are refugees being properly protected? Refugees also have the right to escape war and seek shelter and safety in a host country but, in practice, enforcing that right is not always easy. Should host countries keep their borders open for refugees at all times, or should they be allowed to set and enforce maximum quotas?

Task : Answers

Answer the following questions :

1/ Worldwide, approximately how many people have been forced to leave their homes to escape violence and war?
A.100 million
B.60
C.20
D.05

2/ What is the difference between refugees and internally displaced persons (IDP)?
A. Internally displaced persons cross an international border and seek refuge outside of their countries of nationality, while refugees do not
B. Refugees cross an international border and seek refuge outside of their countries of nationality while internally displaced persons do not
C. Internally displaced persons are legally protected by the UN 1951 Convention on the Status of Refugees while refugees are not
D. Refugees are legally protected by the UN 1951 Convention on Asylum Seekers while internally displaced persons are not

3/ According to the international legal definition, a refugee is someone who:
A.Is fleeing war, violence and/or persecution
B.Is fleeing a large scale natural disaster
C.Is fleeing poverty
D.All of the above

4/ An Asylum seeker is:
A.Another word for refugee
B.Another word for internally displaced person
C.Someone who is seeking to be recognized by a host country as a refugee
D.Someone who is seeking to be recognized by a host country as an internally displaced person

5/ Host countries have several obligations towards refugees, such as:
A.Non-refoulement
B.Non-discrimination
C.Recognizing and protecting basic human rights and freedom
D.All of the above

21.Theme: REFUGEE JOURNEYS
Aims :
- To develop students' listening skills
- To develop students’ discussion skills
- To encourage reflection and critical thinking
Level : B 1+
STAGE AND AIMS TIME PROCEDURE SKILLS PATTERNS OF INTERACTION MATERIALS
WELCOME
-to start the class 3 min
- T greets Ss asks how they are speaking T - Ss
Ss - T
Stage 2
INTRODUCTION
LEXI
- to generate interest in the topic
- to improve master of vocabulary 2 min
- T introduces this theme
Listening T - Ss

Stage 2 LEXI
- to improve master of vocabulary 5 min
- T hands out the worksheet for the Ss to do the excercice
- T asks Ss for their answers
- Ss compare with other Ss
- T invites Ss to take note for correct answers Reading/
Listening/
Speaking T - Ss
S - T
S - S Worksheet
Stage 3 VIEWING
A MOVIE -PART I
- to improve understanding skills 3 min
- T tells the Ss they are going to watch a little film titled 'Refugee Journeys'
- T plays the whole video Listening T - Ss

Computer
Stage 4
DISCUSSION
- to improve speaking and understanding skills
-to check what Ss have understood (reading task) 3 min
- T encourages the Ss to tell what they have understood
- T emphasises that it doesn’t matter if they don’t know
- T gives the Ss time to compare their answers Speaking/
Listening T - Ss
S - T
S - S Board
Stage 5
VIEWING A MOVIE-
PART II
- to improve speaking and understanding skills 3 min
- T tells the Ss they are going to watch the little film again
- T plays the whole video Listening T - Ss

Computer
Stage 6
DISCUSSION
- to improve speaking and understanding skills
-to check what Ss have understood (reading task) 10 min
- T tells the Ss to do tasks 1 and 2
- T emphasises that it doesn’t matter if they don’t know
- Ss exchange responding the questions
- Ss note them on their copybook
Reading/
Listening/
Speaking T - Ss
S - T
S - S Worksheet
Board

Stage 7 FREER PRACTICE
- to improve speaking and understanding skills
- to provide communicative practise of the target language 8 min
- T tells the Ss they are going to work in group of 3 or 4 for discussion task
- T gives Ss 2 minutes to prepare what they want to say
- Ss discuss the question in groups
- T monitors the groups and makes notes of any common errors and particularly good language that T hears
Speaking/
Listening T - Ss Board
Stage 8 ERROR
CORRECTION
- to correct any errors heard and to allow the Ss to participate in the correction 3 min
- T writes errors on the board
- Ss identify and correct the errors
- T writes the particularly good language
- Ss note them on their copybook
Reading/
Listening/
Speaking T - Ss
S - T
S - S Board

MATERIALS TO THE LESSON: REFUGEES JOURNEYS
1.A movie

https://vimeo.com/98099513

Refugee journeys (7:16) Interviews with refugee students and their families tell us about different refugee journeys.

2.Task
Preparation

Match the vocabulary with the correct definition and write a–f next to the numbers 1–6.

1. border a. a line separating two political or geographical areas, especially countries

2. journey b. conditions relating to public health, especially the provision of clean drinking water and adequate
sewage disposal

3. to smuggle c. attempt to find (something)

4. seek d. the protection granted by a nation to someone who has left their native country as a political refugee

5. sanitation e. move (goods) illegally into or out of a country

6. asylum f. an act of traveling from one place to another

1 2 3 4 5 6

1. Check your understanding: true or false

Circle True or False for these sentences.

1. Under international law everyone has a right to seek asylum in another country. True / False

2. The refugee journey is often long and dangerous True / False

3. When they arrived in Syria 2010, Syria wasn’t a safe country. True / False

4. They were accepted to come to Australia. True / False

5. They couldn’t get a visa for Australia. True / False

6. They have never been to Turkey. True / False

7. The video is about the journey from South Africa to Australia. True / False

2. Check your understanding: reordering

Write a number (1–5) to put the countries they crossed over during their journey to Australia in the correct order.

[ .............] Turkey.
[.............] Malaysia.
[............. ] Pakistan.
[.............] Indonesia.
[.............] Syria.

Discussion

What would you feel if you had to leave your country?

Answers to Refugee Journeys – exercises

Preparation

1 2 3 4 5 6
a f E c b d

1.Check your understanding: true or false

1. True
2. True
3. False
4. True
5. False
6. False
7. True

2.Check your understanding: reordering

1. Syria
2. Turkey
3. Pakistan
4. Malaysia
5. Indonesia

REFERENCE LIST

http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/obra-visor/el-teatro-de-aula-como-estrategia-pedagogica-proyecto-de-innovacion-e-investigacion-pedagogica--0/html/0023cd44-82b2-11df-acc7-002185ce6064_2.html

http://blog.tiching.com/el-teatro-una-herramienta-mas-en-el-aula/

http://www.juntadeandalucia.es/boja/2007/33/d1.pdf

https://lnx.educacionenmalaga.es/wp-content/blogs.dir/12/files/2017/11/manual-atal-17_18_completo.pdf?file=2017/11/manual-atal-17_18_completo.pdf

https://dialnet.unirioja.es/descarga/articulo/4033063.pdf

https://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/using-cartoons-comic-strips

www.ucomics.com/comics/

www.comedyorama.com/index.html

http://learnenglishkids.britishcouncil.org/en/make-your-own/comic-strip-maker

www.bitstrips.com/create/comic

http://www.migrant.info.pl/Informacje_wa%C5%BCne_dla_cudzoziemc%C3%B3w.html

http://philmckinney.com/innovation-classroom-education-needs-innovative/

https://mfiles.pl/pl/index.php/Szok kulturowy
Joseph Conrad, Heart of Darkness, wyd. Dover Publications, 1991, ISBN: 0486264645

http://www.sectorescaperoom.com/5-educational-benefits-escape-rooms/

http://florida4h.org/staff/inservice/methods.htm#Skit
https://www.smp.org/resourcecenter/resource/6158/
http://teachingcenter.wustl.edu/resources/teaching-methods/lectures/improving-presentation-style/
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AAQp7cytOtU
https://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/student-presentations
A multicultural society
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/in_depth/uk/2002/race/ - a resource with article on British society
http://www.britkid.org/- this is a site about race aimed at teenagers

Multicultural Britain
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yuqXO-ENu5Y - a video shot for The British Council

A multicultural society , Then and Now
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BDAnf-IabjA - a video titled ''Now and then'' shot by Joice Kudia in November, 10, 2010
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mtPkt2ccsdY - a song/poem performed by Chris Lamontagne
Time to flee
adapted from ''Amnesty International'' https://www.amnesty.org.uk/education

Immigration myths
adapted from ''Teaching tolerance'' https://www.tolerance.org/classroom-resources/tolerance-lessons/immigration-myths

A tale of two brothers A film ''From Syria to Germany: a tale of two brothers'' shot for UNICEF in 2015
link to the film https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-QlHUcXQhf0

Refugees crisis in Europe a/A set of press articles published in The New York Times in 2015 ''What Can Countries Do to Help Refugees Fleeing to Europe?'
link to the press articles https://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2015/09/15/what-cancountries-do-to-help-refugees-fleeing-to-europe
A set of photos by Object 1Object 2Dan Kitwood and Win McNamee
link to the photos https://www.ibtimes.co.uk/migrant-crisis-photos-syrian-refugees-longjourney-safety-part-2-greece-hungary-1518886

Stories of immigration Web sites a/ StoryCorps Historias
http://www.storycorps.org/historias-en b/ My Immigration Story.com http://www.myimmigrantionstory.com

Ali's story A film made for BBC Learning by Freedom from Torture on February 12, 2017
link to the film https://vimeo.com/44516196

What does it mean to be a refugee ? A film by Benedetta Berti, Evelien Borgman shot in June 2016 link to the film https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=25bwiSikRsI

p://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/

Author's programme. Pedagogical innovation I understand, experience and experience a movie because I know how to watch it. I make a movie because I know how to make it. Authors: Agnieszka Grzegórzek-Zając, Mariusz Widawski

J. Bohme, V. Frey, D. Schindlauer, K. Wladasch, Antydyskryminacja, Warszawa 2005
K. Białek, A. Kowalska, E. Kownacka M. Piegat-Kaczmarczyk, Warsztaty kompetencji międzykulturowych- podręcznik trenera, Warszawa 2008.
Praca zbiorowa, Uczenie się międzykulturowe. Pakiet edukacyjny, Warszawa 2001

THE CURRICULUM PROPOSAL
was created as one of the outputs of the project
I CHANGE – INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCES:
HORISONS APPLIED TO NEW GENERATION’S EDUCATION.
The Curriculum Proposal is an effect of cooperation
between the teachers of the partner schools:
Licée Marie Joseph in Trouville-sur-Mer, France
Liceum Ogólnokształcące im. Mikołaja Kopernika in Tuchów, Poland
IES Mercedes Labrador in Fuengirola, Spain
N. Serap Ulusoy Mesleki ve Teknik Anadolu Lisesi in Samsun, Turkey

THE CURRICULUM PROPOSAL
is an analytical study of specific topics on Intercultural Competence.
It is a collection of lesson plans with the corresponding methodology,
recommended as a complement to all European schools’ curricula
to serve as a useful teaching resource in developing intercultural education.

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