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Numer publikacji: 31109
Dział: Języki obce

Names of Other Organic Compunds

Hydroxyl group – grupa hydroksylowa formaldehyde – aldehyd mrówkowy
Monohydric alcohols – alkohole jednowodorotlenowe formic acid – kwas mrówkowy
Aldehyde group – grupa aldehydowa acetic acid – kwas octowy
Derivative – pochodna palmitic acid – kwas palmitynowy
Reducing properties – właściwości redukujące stearic acid – kwas stearynowy
Carboxylic group – grupa karboksylowa oleic acid – kwas oleinowy
Fatty acids – kwasy tłuszczowe formate - mrówczan
Ester - ester acetate – octan
Additive – dodatek distinct odour – charakterystyczny zapach

Alcohols are organic compounds containing one or more hydroxyl groups. The –OH group must be directly attached to the carbon atom. Their structure can be shown by general formula :


CnH2n+1OH

Monohydric alcohols derive their names from corresponding alkanes. Suffix –ol replaces the –e at the end of the alkane.
CH3OH – methanol
C2H5OH – ethanol
C3H7OH – propanol
Methanol - the simplest alcohol – is a colourless, poisonous liquid. For industrial purposes it is produced from synthesis gas at high temperature and pressure. It is used as a solvent, as an additive to unleaded petrol, to produce methylated spirit and methanol.
Ethanol is a colourless, flammable liquid. Pure ethanol absorbs water vapour. Many gases are more soluble in it than in water. Ethanol can be oxidized to ethanal or ethanoic acid
Aldehydes are derivatives of akanes; one atom of hydrogen is replaced by aldehyde group –CHO. The simplest aldehyde with the formula HCHO is named formaldehyde or methanal. The second one CH3CHO is named ethanal or acetic aldehyde. They are famous for their reducing properties.
Carboxylic acids are organic compounds containing at least one carboxylic group – COOH. General formula of carboxylic acids is:

CnH2n+1COOH


Homologous series of carboxylic acids starts with methanoic acid which has only one hydrogen atom instead of an aliphatic part. The strength and solubility of carboxylic acids in water decreases with the number of carbon atoms in a chain. Many of them have a distinct odour.
HCOOH – methanoic acid (formic acid)
CH3COOH – ethanoic acid (acetic acid)
CH3CH2COOH – propanoic acid
The most common carboxylic acid is ethanoic acid also known as an acetic acid. It is obtained in the oxidation of ethanol.
catalyst
CH3CH2OH + 2[O]  CH3COOH + H2O

Acids containing a lot of carbon atoms (more than 10) are called fatty acids.
There are two groups of fatty acids:
- saturated fatty acids – their molecules contain only single carbon-carbon bonds.
C15H31COOH – palmitic acid
C17H35COOH – stearic acid
- unsaturated fatty acids – some of the carbon-carbon bonds in the molecule are double ones.
C17H33COOH – oleic acid

Esters are organic compounds formed in the reaction between an alcohol and an acid.
General formula for esters contains -COO- ester group and -R1, -R2 hydrocarbon chains.
Esters are used as solvents, in many chemical processes, for flavouring essence and perfume.

Homologous series of esters and their flavours
HCOOCH3 - methyl formate
HCOOC2H5 - ethyl formate rum
CH3COOCH3 – methyl acetate
CH3COOC2H5 - ethyl acetate pears

EXERCISES RELATED TO ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

1. Fill the gaps in the text. Use the proper word from the list bellow:

CH3COO C2H5 , ester, soluble, CH3OH, methanol, methyl acetate, stearic acid , CH3COO CH3


The simplest alcohol is..................... with the formula............... It is polar and ...................... in

water. It reacts with acetic acid to form ............................... and water. This organic compound

belongs to the group of esters. Its formula is .............................. and it is called

...........................Fatty acids like ................................. form fats with glycerol.


2. Match in pairs
1. –CHO a) general formula for acids
2. C4H9OH b) ethanal
3. RCOOH c) butanol
4. HCOOC2H5 d) aldehyde group
5. C15H31COOH e) ethyl formate
f) palmitic acid
1 - ............ 2 - ............. 3 - ................. . 4 - ................. . 5 - ......................

3. Write down the proper word to the crosswords and read the password

1. The simplest alcohol
2. Its formula is CH3COOC2H5
3. Acids containing lots of carbon atoms
4. – OH group group of compounds with reducing properties
5. C17H35COOH

x x x 1 x x x x x x x
x 2 x x x x x
3 x x x x x x x x
x x x x x 4
x x x x x x x 5

PASSWORD - ........................... - group of organic compound with general formula CnH2n+1COOH

4. Write down at least three physical or chemical properties of ethanol and at least its three uses.


Properties - ........................................

Uses - ........................................


NAMES OF OTHER ORGANIC COMPOUNDS - ANSWERS

Hydroxyl group – grupa hydroksylowa formaldehyde – aldehyd mrówkowy
Monohydric alcohols – alkohole jednowodorotlenowe formic acid – kwas mrówkowy
Aldehyde group – grupa aldehydowa acetic acid – kwas octowy
Derivative – pochodna palmitic acid – kwas palmitynowy
Reducing properties – właściwości redukujące stearic acid – kwas stearynowy
Carboxylic group – grupa karboksylowa oleic acid – kwas oleinowy
Fatty acids – kwasy tłuszczowe formate - mrówczan
Ester - ester acetate – octan
Additive – dodatek distinct odour – charakterystyczny zapach

Alcohols are organic compounds containing one or more hydroxyl groups. The –OH group must be directly attached to the carbon atom. Their structure can be shown by general formula :


CnH2n+1OH

Monohydric alcohols derive their names from corresponding alkanes. Suffix –ol replaces the –e at the end of the alkane.
CH3OH – methanol
C2H5OH – ethanol
C3H7OH – propanol
Methanol - the simplest alcohol – is a colourless, poisonous liquid. For industrial purposes it is produced from synthesis gas at high temperature and pressure. It is used as a solvent, as an additive to unleaded petrol, to produce methylated spirit and methanol.
Ethanol is a colourless, flammable liquid. Pure ethanol absorbs water vapour. Many gases are more soluble in it than in water. Ethanol can be oxidized to ethanal or ethanoic acid
Aldehydes are derivatives of akanes; one atom of hydrogen is replaced by aldehyde group –CHO. The simplest aldehyde with the formula HCHO is named formaldehyde or methanal. The second one CH3CHO is named ethanal or acetic aldehyde. They are famous for their reducing properties.
Carboxylic acids are organic compounds containing at least one carboxylic group – COOH. General formula of carboxylic acids is:

CnH2n+1COOH


Homologous series of carboxylic acids starts with methanoic acid which has only one hydrogen atom instead of an aliphatic part. The strength and solubility of carboxylic acids in water decreases with the number of carbon atoms in a chain. Many of them have a distinct odour.
HCOOH – methanoic acid (formic acid)
CH3COOH – ethanoic acid (acetic acid)
CH3CH2COOH – propanoic acid
The most common carboxylic acid is ethanoic acid also known as an acetic acid. It is obtained in the oxidation of ethanol.
catalyst
CH3CH2OH + 2[O] CH3COOH + H2O

Acids containing a lot of carbon atoms (more than 10) are called fatty acids.
There are two groups of fatty acids:
- saturated fatty acids – their molecules contain only single carbon-carbon bonds.
C15H31COOH – palmitic acid
C17H35COOH – stearic acid
- unsaturated fatty acids – some of the carbon-carbon bonds in the molecule are double ones.
C17H33COOH – oleic acid

Esters are organic compounds formed in the reaction between an alcohol and an acid.
General formula for esters contains -COO- ester group and -R1, -R2 hydrocarbon chains.
Esters are used as solvents in many chemical processes, for flavouring essence and perfume.

Homologous series of esters and their flavours
HCOOCH3 - methyl formate
HCOOC2H5 - ethyl formate rum
CH3COOCH3 – methyl acetate
CH3COOC2H5 - ethyl acetate pears


1. Fill in the gaps in the text. Use the proper word from the list bellow:
CH3COO C2H5 ester soluble CH3OH methanol methyl acetate stearic acid CH3COO CH3


The simplest alcohol is......methanol... with the formula CH3OH . It is polar and soluble. in

water. It reacts with acetic acid to form ester and water. This organic compound

belongs to the group of esters. Its formula is CH3COO CH3 and it is called methyl acetate

Fatty acids like stearic acid form fats with glycerol.

2. Match in pairs
1. –CHO a) general formula for acids
2. C4H9OH
3. RCOOH b) butanol
4. HCOOC2H5 c) aldehyde group
5. C15H31COOH d) ethyl formate
e) palmitic acid
1 - ......c... 2 - ......b.... 3 - .........a.... . 4 - ......d.... 5 - ....e

3. Write down the proper word to the crosswords and read the password

1. The simplest alcohol
2. Its formula is CH3COOC2H5
3. Acids containing a lot of carbon atoms
4. – OH group of compounds with reducing properties
5. C17H35COOH

x x x 1 M E T H A N O L x x x x x x x
x 2E T H Y L A C E T A T E x x x x x
3F A T T Y A C I D S x x x x x x x x
x x x x x 4 H Y D R O X Y L G R O U P
x x x x x x x 5 S T E A R I C A C I D

PASSWORD - ACIDS - group of organic compounds with general formula CnH2n+1COOH

4. Write down at least three physical or chemical properties of ethanol and at least its three uses.


Properties – colourless, liquid, polar compound, soluble in water, reacts with oxygen

Uses – used for consumption, as a solvent, to produce acetic acid, ethanal and esters.

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