X Używamy plików cookie i zbieramy dane m.in. w celach statystycznych i personalizacji reklam. Jeśli nie wyrażasz na to zgody, więcej informacji i instrukcje znajdziesz » tutaj «.

Numer publikacji: 25234
Dział: Języki obce

Structural and lexical exercises

Structural and Lexical Exercises in English

Niniejszy materiał przeznaczony jest dla szerokiego grona odbiorców. Korzystać z niego mogą maturzyści przygotowujący się do egzaminu maturalnego z języka angielskiego na poziomie rozszerzonym, studenci, kandydaci na studia a także osoby pragnące usystematyzować lub pogłębić swoją wiedzę z zakresu gramatyki i słownictwa języka angielskiego.
Poziom zadań w ćwiczeniach oscyluje między poziomem średnio-zaawansowanym i zaawansowanym. Dobór i charakter a także tematyka ćwiczeń wynika z szerokiego spektrum tematyki i charakterystyki różnych egzaminów z języka angielskiego. Ze względu jednak na fakt, iż napisałam ten materiał z myślą o swoich uczniach przygotowujących się do egzaminu maturalnego na poziomie rozszerzonym wszystkie ćwiczenia można łatwo pogrupować według leksykalnych katalogów maturalnych.
Z poniższego materiału można korzystać na zajęciach z języka angielskiego lub w czasie samodzielnej pracy w domu, W obydwu przypadkach przydatny może okazać się klucz do zadań znajdujący się na końcu. Mając na względzie możliwość samodzielnego wykorzystania materiału ćwiczeniowego, uwzględniłam wskazówki mające ułatwić wykonywanie zamieszczonych w poniższym materiale zadań.
Mam nadzieję, że zamieszczone poniżej zadania okażą się równie ciekawe jak i przydatne w procesie pogłębiania wiedzy z języka angielskiego.


EXAM TIPS

MULTIPLE CHOICE CLOZE

• Skim-read the text to get an idea of what it is about
• Read the text again one sentence at a time. Read the whole sentence, not just the words before and after the gaps, as there may be clues that could help you.
• Try to guess what part of speech is missing and what the meaning of the missing word is
• Do not look at the four choices or guess the answer until you have tried to understand what the sentence means
• Do not always think of words as single isolated items, but as parts of a context
• Decide which of the four choices is best in this context. Consider syntax and style
• Find which of the choices may have the same meaning and decide which one should be left out
• If you aren’t sure about the right answer, try to eliminate three of the four alternatives starting with the words that don’t make sense
• Check if the word you have selected forms an acceptable expression with the word before and/or after it
• Read the text again including the words you used to fill in the gaps to see if it makes sense

OPEN CLOZE

• Skim-read the text to get an idea of what it is about
• Read the text again one sentence at a time. Read the whole sentence, not just the words before and after the gaps, as there may be clues that could help you. Note that sometimes you may find clues in other sentences too
• Try to guess what part of speech is missing and what the meaning of the missing word is
• Remember most of the missing words will be grammatical words, prepositions, pronouns, auxiliary verbs, articles. linking words, etc.
• Remember there is only one missing word
• Check for accuracy of grammar and spelling
• Read the text again including the words you used to fill in the gaps to see if it makes sense

ERROR CORRECTION

• Skim-read the text to get an idea of what it is about
• Read the text again one sentence at a time and try to identify the extra word/words
• Read the whole sentence, not only the line because the extra word may refer to another word 1 –2 lines before
• When looking for extra words note the following:
The extra words can be prepositions, relative pronouns, articles, conjunctions, auxiliary verbs or pronouns
At times the extra word will be one which wrongly changes the tense of the passage
A word which is not absolutely necessary to the meaning of a sentence is not an error
Quite often a word is wrong because it is in the wrong position in the sentence and the sentence makes perfect sentence without it
If a word appears more than once in a line, it is never the wrong word
When there are two negatives in the line, be careful about deciding which is the extra one
• There will always be some lines without errors, usually no more than five. If you think there are more than five correct lines, look carefully again at those lines which are correct
• Read the text again without the extra words to see if it makes sense

WORD FORMATION

• Skim-read the text to get an idea of what it is about
• Read the text again, one sentence at a time
• Decide what part of speech is needed to fill in the gap. The words to be formed will usually be nouns, verbs, adjectives or adverbs
• Decide if the word to be formed has the same or the opposite meaning of the given word according to the meaning of the sentence
• Remember that you will need to add a prefix and/or a suffix to the given word to form a derivative. Sometimes you might also add an ending to the derivative (e.g. –s after a noun, -s, -ed, -ing after a verb). Note, however, that you never need to make more than two changes to the given word.
• Make sure the new word and given word have a common root and that you have spelt the new word correctly
• Read the text again including the words you used to fill in the gaps to see if it makes sense

1. Read the text below and complete each blank with one word.

Gold
The production of items made of gold dates back to ancient Egyptian and Minoan times, when gold was panned 1......................... the aim of making golden bowls and cups. Gold was usually found in river beds, 2...................... in 3........................... to pan for gold, a circular dish (pan) was filled with a mixture of sand and gravel that contained gold. So 4.................... to obtain the gold, this mixture was held under a stream of water and swirled 5.......................... that the lighter parts would slowly wash away and the gold particles would collect at the bottom of the pan. 6....................... gold was a scarce metal, it was used as a form of exchange , and 7...................... it became the basis for international transactions. Over time, new mining techniques developed and elaborate methods were adopted because 8 ............................. the demand for gold. 9.......................... to its huge reseves, South Africa has always been the world’s leading supplier of gold, 10................................. the discovery of gold in California and Australia in the 1840s. Gold is stored in reserve by many governments. In Fort Knox, USA, alone, there are 38 billion dollars worth of gold bars secured behind a twenty-ton door. In 11.......................... of these resources, however, financial circles predict a decline in the demand for gold. Gold was once a powerful currency, 12............................. nowadays it seems to have lost much of its glitter.

2. Read the text below and complete each blank with one word.

Sweden – A wonderful place.
Sweden is a beautiful country, which is much admired 1....................... of its organisation and high standards of living. The country has so 2....................... resources that very few products are imported from other countries. On the contrary, the goods exported range 3.............................. paper and wood to iron and steel and from dairy and meat products to cars. Sweden boasts of a very good social welfare and education systems, 4........................... to the country’s healthy economy. The government 5.............................. care of people in need, such as the elderly, the sick and the unemployed. High quality education is also provided free to everyone. The Swedes .6........................... a more comfortable lifestyle than their European counterparts and the reason 7..................................... this is the high standard of living they enjoy. 8.......................... homes are well designed in order 9................................... keep out the cold, which lasts for about eight months every year. 10.......................... many of us just dream 11............................ owning a luxury car, this is a reality for most Swedes. Even 12.....................they can afford to buy almost any car, Swedish made cars 13.............................. the Saab and Volvo are very popular 14.......................... the Swedes. With the average temperature of –15C and 15............................ snow for most of the year, it is no wonder that the Swedes have learnt to make the most of the long winter. They have created various activities and sports 16................................ that they can enjoy the snow. Not surprisingly 17........................., many Swedes like to 18.............................. a holiday in the warm countries around the Mediterranean during the summer. 19...........................the services, comforts and luxuries,Swedes still cannot escape 20............................ the serious social problems of our age. One may be shocked 21.............................. statistics that place Sweden 22 ............................ the top of the suicide list and wonder why this is so.

3. Read the text below and decide which word best fits each blank.

A wild hunt
Living in a modern society, we cannot 1....................... (ignore/neglect/forget/omit) the acts of crime that take place every day. Criminal activity ranges from stealing to the more serious crimes of kidnapping and murder. Just recently, a hunt was on for two men who 2............................. (stole/robbed/shoplifted/hijacked) an off-licence in broad daylight. The shopowner tried to call the police, but he received a severe 3.................... (strike/knock/hit/blow)to the back of his head, which left him unconscious. It appears that the two 4.............................. (criminals/convicts/pickpockets/burglars) had planned evrything very well, 5............................. (so that/while/since/though) they 6.............................. (escaped/avoided/prevented/stopped) getting caught and made away with a considerable amount of money. They were seen getting on their motorbike holding guns by two policemen in a patrol car, who started 7............................. (arresting/chasing/hunting/following) them. 8.......................... (Despite/ Therefore /Although / However), the robbers managed to get away through the back streets. All exits from the city were closed 9................................ (down/off/up/away) immediately, 10............................. (in spite of/ in order not to/ for fear of/ in case) losing the robbers. Even the airport was put on alert and flights were delayed, as strict security measures were 11................................. (taken/followed/put/made) and all passengers were asked to give proof of their identity and state the 12............................. (motive/purpose/reason/excuse)of their trip. Many people considered this a(n) 13............................ (annoyance/disappointment/ complaint/nuisance) and were shocked 14......................... (with/about/from/by) these tactics. So, they put the 15.........................(fault/accusation/blame/cause) for the situation on the police and 16............................... ( charged/accused/blamed/convicted) them of incompetence. In the end, the police 17................................... (got/recognised/took/received) responsibility for the setbacks. They apologised to the public for any inconvenience they may have caused, 18................................ (but/so/as/because) they claimed that they were doing their best to 19........................................ (forbid/avoid/ban/prevent) the robbers from escaping.

4. Complete the text below with the correct form of the word in brackets.

Antibacterial soaps
A 1.......................... (consider) number of people feel that washing with antibacterial soaps is the 2................................. (sense) thing to do. Unfortunately, their 3............................... (ignore) has led them to believe that these soaps are 4................................... (prefer) to normal ones. However, research has shown that there is no real 5............................. (differ) between washing with ordinary soap or soap 6.................................. (contain) antibacterial agents. It has also been proved that being too clean actually has 7................................... (desire) effects, as our 8............................. (body) do not become 9.............................. (resist) to germs. This 10............................. (discover) has come as a surprise, especially to those who believe that bacteria have to be fought with every means known to man.

5. Read the text below and decide which word best fits each gap.

A deadly job
In Eastern Java one way to 1.................................... (support/secure/protect/defend) a living is to harvest the sulphur 2...................................... (produced/increased/developed/built up) by a local volcano. Twice a day, around thirty porters leave their tiny encampment of hunts and head 3........................................ (to/for/into/at) the 3,156 metre summit of the Welirang Volcano. Once there, they use metal bars to jab away at the earth in order to break the sulphur into blocks that will fit into their baskets. This task usually takes about ten minutes. Then the porters give the sulphur to a distribution centre, from where it is sent to chemical companies. While collecting sulphur, the porters are exposed to toxic fumes which cause many incurable 4................................. (sicknesses/diseases/injuries/infections). Many of them, however, don’t 5.............................. (bring/give/pay/hand) attention to the health risks they face daily and use only a face mask to 6........................................ (guard/rescue/support/protect) themselves. This work 7........................... (risks/endangers/decreases/warns) their health and they are often in 8................................. (pain/ache/difficulty/illness) due to coughing fits, streaming eyes and rotting gums. As they get older, they become 9.............................. (unfit/delicate/gentle/fragile) and eventually 10........................ (injure/hurt/suffer/collapse) from throat and lung cancer, from which they never 11............................. (overcome/cure/recover/heal). What’s more, they are not paid well, even though they 12..................... (lead/bring/suffer/own) a difficult life and their health is 13..................................... (hurt/injured/harmed/wounded) beyond repair. Yet, in spite of the 14............................... (unfit/unhealthy/sensitive/wrong) conditions, the porters have no intention of giving 15...................... (back/away/in/up) their job. 16 ................................. (As long as/Unless/Even if/In case) it provides them and their family with an income they will continue to do it.

6. Read the text below and complete it with appropriate words from the backets.

A big decision
When Lucy 1................................... (announced/told/agreed/claimed) that she was going to move abroad because she was bored 2................................. (with/of/about/at) her life, we weren’t surprised. 3............................... (Once and for all/All in all/After all/All the same), she had been talking about moving to a warmer country for ages. One which would 4................................ (supply/offer/reveal/cater) sun, sea and opportunities for outdoor activities. A country like Spain or Portugal would 5................................ (fit/suit/combine/match) her just fine. We took her even more seriously when she called 6................................. (out/up/for/off) an interview for a job she was sure of getting. Of course, her parents were annoyed with her decision, but I had to admit that I sympathised 7.............................. (for/to/with/on) her. I had done something 8......................... (similar/common/same/likewise) when I was her age, so I supported her all the way. I even helped her decide on a 9................................ (detailed/suitable/fitted/matching) destination. It was near an ancient site which, given Lucy’s academic background in archaeology, was 10........................... (ideal/special/particular/fine) for her. I 11................................ (insisted/explained/said/warned) her that in the beginning she would feel 12................................ (as/alike/like/likewise) an 13........................ (outbreak/outsider/outcome/outlook), but people from small towns are friendly and she wouldn’t feel lonely for too long. The time came for Lucy to depart. She wasn’t sad, 14.............................. (not alike/unlikely/not as/unlike) her parents who were crying and couldn’t 15................................ (bear/tolerate/stand/suffer) to see their daughter leaving. Seeing her parents cry made me feel responsible for what had happened. In the end, I 16................................. (admitted/denied/apologised/accused) for having encouraged Lucy to leave. To 17............................ (tell/speak/say/talk) the truth, however, I’m glad to have influenced her decision to move abroad.

7. Complete the text below with the correct form of the words in brackets.

A tennis star is born
1....................................... (when) the tennis star Richard Krajicek steps onto the court, his opponent needs to prepare for one of the 2................................. (fast) serves in the game. Krajicek can be 3........................................ (pride) of his 220 km/h serve, since his 4.............................. (succeed) on the court can be partly attributed to it. Without doubt, Krajicek can be described as 5............................... (some) who is in 6................................. (pursue) of 7.................................. (excel). At Wimbledon in 1997, bad weather conditions didn’t 8.................................. (damp) his spirits. The only 9...................................... (think) that went through his mind was that of holding his trophy. Krajicek had a lot of 10................................. (determine) and beat his 11............................... (America) opponent three sets to love. Many consider Krajicek to be the next great 12........................ (Europe) tennis champion following in the footsteps of Boris Becker.

8. Read the text below and complete each gap with one suitable word.

Flower Power
Flowers grow everywhere in the world but 1.............................. one thinks of tulips, they think of the Netherlands. The Dutch have a saying:”Flowers love people”. 2............................ this is true, then flowers really love the Dutch, as flowers have been cultivated in the Netherlands for hundreds of years. In fact, the flower industry has been 3................................ profitable that it has been boosting the Dutch economy since the seventeenth century. Recently, however, the Dutch flower growers have been 4.................................... difficulties in coping with the tough competition from abroad. The Colombians, for instance, have 5.................................. the Dutch by surprise, Their flowers are now 6............................ demand all over the world 7........................ to the simple fact that they are cheaper. Within a few short years, the Colombians have brought Holland’s domination of the flower industry to an end. 8............................ this fact, the Netherlands is still in control of over sixty per cent of the world’s flower market. In 9............................. to help the Dutch growers, the European Commission has decided to promote the flower industry, as 10........................ as the growers themselves are willing to cut costs and become more competitive. All this in the hope 11................................ making people buy more flowers than they used to. Today the average Dutchman buys 150 stems a year,12 .............................. the Germans buy 80 stems and the English only 50 stems. These numbers are constantly declining. 13.......................... this trend is reversed, many Dutch growers will soon be 14........................... of business. Another problem with the Dutch flower industry has to do with the popularity of their national symbol, the tulip. It is no longer the most sought after flower. Most people would 15.............................. have a rose or chrysanthemum. The problem the Dutch flower growers are facing are serious. It’s 16............................. these problems were handled with an open mind and a willingness to adapt to modern demands.

9. Complete the following text with appropriate words from the brackets.

The best students
According to most professors, mature students are 1................................. (first/ideal/special/best) students because they are hard-working and become actively 2.............................. (included/related/involved/combined) in all aspect of the learning process. The majority of mature students have a poor educational background but they 3.................................. (able/succeed/manage/capable) to do exceptionally well at tertiary level. 4.................................. (Although/Despite/However/In spite of) many of them have a mortgage, a job and children to 5................................ (grow/develop/rise/raise), they are always present at seminars and lectures and always hand 6................................... (in/over/out/up) essays on time. They like studying, writing essays and they enjoy the class discussions that take 7................................ (after/over/part/place). Consequently they 8..................................... (fulfil/achieve/reach/earn) excellent results. In fact, as they have 9................................. (known/experienced/found out/recognised) many of life’s pleasures, they are content with their lives and this has a positive 10..................................... (effect/affect/conclusion/consequence) on their attitude, making them 11...................................... (eager/anxious/interested/impatient) students. On the other hand, despite their enthusiasm and commitment, mature students 12............................ (tolerate/resist/suffer/complain) from anxiety. The fact that they have made many sacrifices to get into university puts extra pressure on them to succeed. Family 13.................................. (shelter/cover/refuge/support) is of the utmost importance for most of these students. This includes the financial assistance required to pay for the 14.................................. (charges/prices/costs/fares) of a university education. 15.................................. (Likewise/Furthermore/Nevertheless/Otherwise), completing a degree gives mature students a sense of achievement, boosts their confidence and 16....................................... (creates/improves/progresses/advances) their job prospects.

10. Complete each gap in the text with one suitable word.

TV Ratings
As you settle 1............................ in front of your television have you 2................................... wondered how TV ratings are calculated? Don’t worry, we’re not 3.............................. watched while we’re in front of the TV. It’s the Audience Research Board (ARB) that works 4....................... the ratings for each programme. To 5.............................. this, the board appoints researchers whose task is to choose from a sample of viewers, who receive a small payment for 6.............................. cooperation. To gather the required information the researchers connect the viewer’s TV set and video recorder to electronic meters which record when these appliances are turned on and off and what is being watched. There is a difference 7.............................. counting TV programmes and those recorded on video. To count the latter, the day, time and channel are imprinted by the electronic meter. 8............................., only when the video is watched does the programme recorder on the meter become activated. It sounds complicated but the ARB need to separate live recordings 9..................................... taped ones. 10................................... problem is the amount of viewers in one household. If there is 11.................................. than one viewer, then the household is given a special remote control. Every 12............................... someone makes use 13............................. it, they 14................................. to press their given number so that the meter recognises who is watching. Finally, 15............................. all the figures are collected, they are compared to the TV guides and 16................................ the end the national viewing figures are calculated.

11. Read the text. Some of the lines have a word which should not be there. Cross it out.

My ideal school
Even though great improvements have been made at my school as far as education 1
is concerned, I will believe that much more should be done, in terms of resources, 2
extra-curricular activities and safety. Firstly, there are not enough of books and 3
materials in the library to accommodate so many students either. The students need 4
to be able to thoroughly research for class projects. Secondly, I believe so my school 5
lacks an extensive range of activities. Although it offers different sports and clubs 6
in the winter, there is not much which to do during the summer. My school has got 7
many facilities such as a gym and playing fields. However, I think that a swimming 8
pool would rather be a great idea and something students would enjoy. They 9
would also benefit enough from it, as younger students could learn how to 10
swim and the older students could use it to exercise or play games in. Lastly, 11
my school needs to employ a guard to patrol the area when the school is 12
closed. Recently, a gang broke right into the school and vandalised it. If a guard 13
were at present, they would be reluctant to enter. On the whole, a school should 14
be a place where students are encouraged to learn in. They should also feel safe 15
while on the premises, and of course a bit of fun does not hurt once in a 16
little while. With a few changes, my school would be an ideal one. 17

12. Complete the following text with appropriate form of the words in brackets.

Pythagoras
Pythagoras was a 1................................(philosophy) born on the Aegean island of Samos. He was well known as a great 2.......................... (mathematics) and his academic excellence has been 3............................ (respect) for over 2000 years. As a young man he travelled and was 4 .................... (great) influenced by some 5 ................................ (remark) ideas he came across in Egypt and Babylon. Over time, he made 6................................. (extend) mathematical investigations, which included “Pythagoras’ Theorem”, a great 7.............................. (discover) stating that the square of the hyponenuse of a right 8............................ (angle) triangle is equal to the sum of the squares. In 9.................................... (add), Pythagoras was one of the earliest 10.................................. (science) to suggest that the earth was a sphere revolving around a central fire. It is without a doubt that his 11................................... (contribute) to the scientific world will always be acknowledged.

13. Complete the following text with an appropriate word from the brackets.

A great doctor
Edward Jenner, the person who 1..................(detected/explored/discovered /experimented)
the vaccination for smallpox , was born and raised in the village of Berkeley, England. At the age of thirteen he became a(n) 2............................... (attendant/assistant/colleague/clerk) to a surgeon from whom he 3........................... (won/made/gained/learnt) a sound knowledge of medical surgical practice. When he turned twenty-one he went to London and became a student of the famous Scottish anatomist and surgeon John Hunter, who was on the 4............................. (crew/party/team/staff) at St George’s Hospital. Three years later he returned to his village and opened his practice, where he 5................................ (supposed /showed/proved/recognised) to be a very sensitive and capable doctor. Having a 6.............................. (curious/peculiar/strange/different) and observant nature, he was always carrying 7.......................... (away/up/on/out) experiments, writing medical papers and promoting medical knowledge. He took an 8.............................. (attraction/interest/attention/appeal) in the smallpox virus, which was the leading cause of death at the time. Jenner 9................................ (noticed/considered/regarded/reflected) that when someone suffered a(n) 10................................ (strike/blow/attack/knock) of cowpox - a very common but harmless disease – they could not become infected with smallpox. It wasn’t long before Jenner started performing a 11................................. (selection/collection/choice/series) of experiments, which proved his theory right. He quickly 12...................................... (came up with/invented/created/made up) what he called the vaccination procedure. This meant injecting a person with the cowpox disease, which effectively 13............................ (banned/prohibited/ended/stopped) them from getting smallpox. This procedure was successful and the death 14................................ (scale/percentage/rate/degree) from smallpox fell dramatically once the vaccination became widely 15................................ (spare/available/convenient/handy). Jenner received worldwide recognition from his colleagues and many awards for his discovery. Thanks to Jenner no incidents of smallpox are 16...................................... (reported/expressed/remrked/commented) today. The disease responsible for so many deaths up to the eightteenth century no longer exists.

14. Complete the following text with appropriate words.

Tricking shoppers
Have you ever wondered why we buy more things 1........................... we need when we go shopping?2 .............................. if we’re not in the mood for shopping it appears that many 3............................. us waste money 4................................ unwanted purchases. However, consumers fail to admit this and in general see 5................................ as being smart enough not to be influenced by advertising, retailers’ tricks or even their own mood when shopping. According 6................................ surveys which have been carried out, there’s a strong connection 7.................................... people’s psychology and their purchases. In other words, 8............................. consumers feel relaxed, they buy more. It seems retailers have realised this, so they play soft music to create a more pleasant atmosphere. Apart 9......................... sound, visual tricks are used as 10............................... . Expensive goods are placed on shelves where they 11.......................... easily be seen by adults, 12........................... children’s goods are displayed on lower shelves. Other ways of making people buy without realising that they are being influenced is the use of vivid colours to make products stand 13.............................., or the smell of baking bread or fresh coffee wafting through the store, which may appeal to the shopper’s appetite. Therefore, it isn’t wise to go shopping when you’re hungry since you are more 14........................... to buy products you don’t really need. In addition, don’t carry too 15......................... money when out shopping because the more you have the more you spend. So, are you a smart shopper 16 ........................ one that gets tricked into buying without realising it? Watch out next time you go shopping!

15. In some lines, there is an extra word, cross it out.

What gets me angry
I look forward to meeting up with my friends at the local skateboard ramp every evening. 1
Fifteen friends and myself spend our time performing stunts and trying on new moves we 2
may have picked them up from magazines or the Internet. All of us take our skateboarding 3
seriously and try our hardest as to become the best we possibly can. However, there 4
are some adults who consider our own pastime dangerous and antisocial. These people 5
are constantly creating prolems for us skateboarders or skurfers, as if we like to 6
call up ourselves. They have complained to the local authorities and have tried to ban 7
us from riding our skateboards in public. I honestly cannot understand why do these people 8
have a problem with skateboarders. Every skurfer I know follows the road rules and wears 9
the necessary safety equipment. We keep off footpaths and avoid roads with 10
a lot of traffic. I believe we are too responsible teenagers and always watch out for 11
pedestrians who crossing the street. Adults are always talking about the problems teenagers 12
face in our society, yet they fail to see our good example. We know how to face up to 13
our problems and because we spend a lot of time together, we discuss very many issues. 14
We spend out time creatively, doing things we enjoy ourselves and most importantly 15
keeping out of trouble. I believe all teenagers should take up a sport and occupy 16
themselves with it and that adults should try to be little more understanding. 17

16. Complete the text with appropriate forms of the words in brackets.

The Platypus
When the platypus was first discovered in 1.................................. (sun) Australia, its skin was sent back to Europe. Experts who examined it were under the 2................................ (impress) it was a hoax, as the skin seemed to be from a 3.................................. (mix) of animals. It is definitely one of the strangest animals in the world. It has a 4................................... (flat) body covered in dense, short, waterproof hairs and it has 5............................ (practice) no neck. It’s got a long, flat bill which bears a 6.................................. (resemble) to a duck’s. The nostrils at the end of the bill are extremely 7............................. (sense) and allow the platypus to detect its prey with 8.......................... (accurate). What’s more, the male platypus has a sharp spur which carries a poison. It is not 9........................................ (fate) but it does create a nasty wound and a 10.............................. (pain) sensation. In general, the platypus prefers to be left alone, though it is not an 11........................... (friend) creature.

17. Complete the text with appropriate word from the brackets.

Dolphins
Dolphins are aquatic animals, which are closely 1............................(combined/accompanied /involved /related) to whales and porpoises. Thirty two species of dolphins exist and they vary in shape and 2.............................. (measure/scale/figure/size). For instance, the bufeo dolphin is only 1.5 metres in length whereas the bottled-nosed dolphin 3.............................. (comes/gets/reaches/appears) 4 metres in length. The killer whale, which is 4............................. (supposed/considered/believed/known) a dolphin, can grow up to 9 metres in length. Dolphins, 5.................................. (likely/like/alike/as) whales, breathe through a blowhole, which is located at the top of their heads. As they swim through the water, they break the surface every two minutes to breathe out followed by breathing in before they dive into the water again. It is 6......................... (usual/regular/accustomed/common) to find these 7................................... (efficient/qualified / skilled/effective) swimmers in all the world’s major seas. They 8......................... (appear/show/emerge/display) in open waters and make arched bounds, usually before the bow of a ship 9............................. (In fact/At any rate/On average/To some extent), dolphins eat about one third of their weight in food per day. They usually eat fish and squid, which are caught with the help of their strong jaws, which have between 100 and 260 teeth. In the past, dolphins were hunted for food and their 10..................................... (helpful/valuable/invaluable/worthy) oil. Nowadays, many dolphins are trapped by accident in tuna nets. As they are 11........................ (insufficient/ incapable/inadequate/unable) of escaping and reaching the surface, they die from lack of oxygen. Millions of dolphins have drowned over the years as a result of such accidents. Animal rights activists do not only 12............................ (protest/accuse/blame/oppose) about this but they have also made several successful 13............................ (try outs/trials/attempts/experiments) to stop fishing trawlers from using tight-knit nets, which don’t 14............................... (help/allow/leave/let) dolphins to escape. 15.......................... (Under way/On the way/By this way/In this way), they have succeeded in reducing the number of dolphins killed unjustly and 16............................... (reassuring /ensuring/securing/confirming) that dolphins won’t become extinct.

18. Complete each gap with one suitable word.

Exam stress
Does the idea of sitting an exam 1..................................... you anxious? There is 2............................. doubt that during the exam period stress level tends to rise. Exams are certainly important but they’re not 3............................. getting into a state over. In actual 4.........................., stress has a negative effect on your performance. Below are some simple 5............................. of overcoming stress. Firstly, it is important to know the date and place of each exam beforehand. This will remove 6............................... initial worry 7......................... what time the exam begins and 8............................ you have to go. Secondly, your physical state is particularly important during the exam period. Therefore, a good night’s sleep before each exam is highly advisable. In addition, it’s vital that you 9............................ plenty of exercise while studying, 10............................. sitting down all day can make it harder to get to sleep at night. Another important factor is your diet. A balanced diet is necessary; a breakfast high in protein and fibre will see you 11............................. the day. However, 12................................ you don’t feel 13.................................. eating first thing in the morning, take some fresh fruit with you and eat it before the exam. Finally, it goes without saying that in 14.......................... to do well in exams and avoid stress, revise well 15.......................... advance and don’t leave studying till the 16.............................. minute.

19. In some lines there is one extra word. Cross it out.

The place I love
My favourite place to visit is the island my mother comes from. It’s not a very large 1
island but its beauty is being known far and wide. There are fir and pine trees everywhere 2
as well as other types of vegetation, as during the winter there is such a lot of 3
rainfall. The houses are traditional and made up of huge stones. The walls are very thick 4
in order as to keep the houses cool in summer and warm in winter. Cars cannot be 5
driven into certain areas because most villages have been narrow cobble-stoned streets. 6
There are many pretty fishing villages. The fishermen get up very early in the 7
morning to catch fish and sell them out to the local people or tourists. Sometimes the fish 8
or other seafood such as octopus, they may still be alive. Tourists like to eat such 9
delicacies at the small restaurants in these fishing villages. Another nice place to 10
visit is Sunset Hill, where you can sit on the cliffs and watch the sun to disappear over the 11
horizon. There are many beaches where you can go for swimming but the nicest beaches 12
are the ones you can only get to by boat. Hardly not any people go there, the water 13
is crystal-clear and there are also caves you can swim in as well. Of course, there 14
is not much to do on the island during the winter but enjoy yourself the isolation and 15
serenity those months have to offer. One day, I would like to live there permanently 16
and bring up my children away from the hustle and bustle of modern day life. 17

20. Complete the text with appropriate form of the words in brackets.

Radar
The word ’radar’ stands for Radio Detection and Ranging and was 1...................................... (develop) by a 2................................. (physics) named R.A Watson Watt. But does radar work? It 3.................................... (simple) sends out radio waves and an echo returns from solid objects. By 1935 Watt had 4................................ (success) built a long range system that could be used to detect approaching storms which might 5.............................. (danger) aircraft. Radar was also used in World War II primarily because of its 6................................ (able) to identify aircraft long before they could be seen or heard. The radar proved 7............................. (value) to the British during the war. They set up radar station as a 8.............................. (defend) along the south and east coasts of England. These days, radar is used in 9.............................. (vary) ways but most importantly in airports by air traffic controllers who give 10.................................. (instruct) to airline pilots. Without this, aeroplanes would risk having mid-air 11................................. (collide). Today radar is used in many more places than you would think.

21. Complete the text with appropriate word from the brackets.

A polar explorer
Ronald Amundsen is one of the most famous men in the history of polar exploration. He was the first man to 1.............................. (reach/arrive/approach/come) the South Pole, the first to sail around the world through the Northwest and Northeast passages and the first to fly over the North Pole in a light aircraft. Amundsen was born in Norway in 1872. From a young age he believed he would become an explorer just like his hero Sir John Franklin. However, his 2.............................. (goal/ambition/wish/intention) took a back seat when he decided to study medicine 3........................ (at/for/in/from) his mother’s sake, but he never 4................................... (omitted/forgot/neglected /ignored) his dream. When his mother 5............................... (passed away/passed out/died away/died out), Amundsen dropped his studies and went to sea. At the age of twenty he was given the 6.................................... (occasion/situation/opportunity/condition) to set sail on an Arctic vessel and at twenty-five he joined the crew of the “Belgica” to take part in a Belgian 7.............................. (experiment/investigation/research/expedition) to the Antarctic. Once there, they became trapped for thirteen months in the ice and were forced to eat seal meat to 8.................................... (avoid/ keep away/escape/resisit) starvation. On his return he departed almost immediately for the North Magnetic Pole with just a crew of seven. This 9.............................. (cruise/excursion/voyage/tour) lasted three years and made him a world-famous explorer. Four years later he decided to 10................................. (head/travel/lead/take) for the Antarctic and did so in August 1910. His first attempt failed 11................................. (since/due to/owing/as a result) bad weather, but this didn’t 12.......................................(disapprove/reject/discourage/regret) him. In 1911 he 13............................... (set out/left/set up/progressed) on his journey again with four men, using sledges and fifty-two dogs. In two months they arrived at the South Pole; they were the first to do so. Amundsen and his men spent three days 14.................................... (researching/looking for/exploring/inspecting) the area and left a marker flag and letters for the King of Norway and their rival, Robert Scott. Amundsen was successful because of his excellent knowledge 15............................... (of/in/at/about) polar contitions. He also paid a lot of attention to details and 16.................................. (maintained /kept/owned/possessed) physical strength that allowed him to endure the hardship.

22. Complete each gap with one suitable word.

Environmental disaster
On 16 March 1978 the supertanker Amoco Cadiz, a vessel owned and operated 1.......................... the Amoco Oil Corporation, encountered difficulties 2........................ the steering failed off the northwest coast of Brittany, France due to a storm. The following day, as the storm got worse, the massive tanker drifted onto rocks and eventually split 3.......................... two and sank. Consequently, its cargo of 220,000 tons of crude oil poured into the sea. The effect 4....................... the environment was devastating. The oil slick covered more 5............................ 130 beaches along the Brittany coastline in 30 centimetres of oil.As a 6..............................., damage 7............................ the wildlife in the area was catastrophic. Over 30,000 seabirds perished along with 230,000 tons of crab, lobster and fish. In addition,local people’s jobs 8.......................... seriously threatened as the area’s oyster and seaweed beds, 9.............................. were a source 10.............................. income for many inhabitants, were almost completely wiped out. The environmental disaster caused by this unfortunate accident forced the French authorities to 11............................ action. They created the Rail d’Ouessant shipping channel 12......................... that they could better control the flow of seagoing traffic. Moreover, 13.............................. of the most powerful lanterns in the world was installed at the Creach lighthouse on Ouessant. Now, decades 14.......................... the oil spill, life has slowly 15............................... returning to the Brittany coastline. Environmentalists hope a disaster 16....................................... that won’t happen again.

23. In some lines there is one extra word. Cross it out.

Flying high
My family and I made our way to New Delhi airport to catch out flight home to Melbourne. The 1
flight was on schedule so that we boarded the 747 almost immediately and tried to get 2
comfortable since there was a long tiring journey ahead. Not for long after take-off the cabin 3
crew served to us our first meal. After we had eaten, they distributed headphones 4
and most of people settled down to watch the film which was about to begin, That’s when 5
the incident occurred. I was in my seat and as I’m a rather fearful flyer, I had my own seatbelt 6
fastened. All of a sudden, I had felt myself being pressed down really hard into my seat. 7
The plane had been thrown hundreds of feet upwards as if it were weighed no more than a 8
toy aeroplane. No sooner had this happened than I felt something like a ten-ton truck 9
trying to pull me out of my seat. People were thrown up into the air, overhead luggage 10
compartments flew open and people’s belongings which were everywhere. It was total chaos. 11
The whole thing only lasted a matter of few seconds but the results were disastrous. 12
There were holes in the ceiling, baggage and food trays all over the whole place. People 13
were screaming and some more of them were moaning in pain. Shortly afterwards the captain told
us that it would be necessary to land in Calcutta as there were being many injured 15
people who needed to be taken to hospital. Luckily, my parents were not injured. I will never 16
forget my experience and I have a good laugh when I think about that it was my fear that 17
had probably saved me from being seriously injured. 18

24. Complete the text with appropriate forms of the words in the brackets.

Maurice Green
On the 16th June 1999, Maurice Green, a 1................................. (remark) athlete from Kansas broke the 100 metre world record with the 2................................. (believe) time of 9.78 seconds. However, after closer 3................................. (examine), a hundredth of a second was added because of a 4................................... (calculate). According to Green, his 5........................... (succeed) has a lot to do with his coach, John Smith. Smith realised that Green required additional 6......................... (strong) and put together a 7.............................. (specify) programme involving weight training. With time, Green gained the 8........................... (confide) and speed that were necessary to pull off his impressive 9............................. (achieve). When asked what he thought of the title “the world’s 10..................................... (fast) human”, he smiled and said he enjoyed it and has no 11........................ (intend) of giving up this title too quickly.

25. Complete the text with appropriate words from the brackets.

Landslides and avalanches
People often 1....................................... (involve/confuse/interfere/combine) the words ‘landslide’ and ‘avalanche’. They may seem quite 2...................................... (alike/like/same/similar) to each other but in actual fact they aren’t. A landslide is when massive 3................................ (numbers/totals/amounts/sizes) of rock and soil 4.................................... (remove/move/depart/transfer), whereas an avalanche is a sudden flow of large mass of snow or ice down a slope, sometimes at speeds of up to 1600 kilometres per hour. Whatever the 5............................. (option/case/matter/reason), both types of slides occur in mountainous areas such as the Alps and the Himalayas and both cause great destruction over large areas of land. In addition, they often create floods by damming rivers and may even destroy whole towns by burying them. The fact that considerable 6................................ (ruin/damage/loss/injury) can be caused by both landslides and avalanches has 7.................................. (made/ affected/ resulted/ forced) many countries to take precautionary 8................................. (warnings/measures/ laws/actions). In Switzerland, for instance, protective devices have been designed which 9.................................. (warn/threaten/risk/advise) of the 10.................................. (possibility/ opportunity/chance/occasion) of an avalanche. Snow patrols in mountain areas detonate explosives that cause smaller, less destructive slides. This 11....................................... (task/manner/process /way) is supposed to prevent larger ones from occurring. What’s more, in places where people live, trees are sometimes planted close together to stop large masses of snow from 12......................... (producing/adding/increasing/building up) and therefore risking a slide. This is a(n) 13.......................... (effective/succeeded/valuable/suitable) way of protecting 14..................................... (both/other than/not only/even) property but also people. All in all, avalanches and landslides are definitely a huge problem. 15.............................. (Over/Under/Beside/In) the circumstances, people can only take the necessary precautions in the hope of protecting themselves 16................................. (in the event/in a state/in danger/in any case) of a disaster.

26. Complete each gap with one suitable word.

Clowns to teach physical education
Believe it or 1............................, as part of the upgraded Physical Education Curriculum, clowns and trapeze artists are being brought in to train Physical Education teachers. This step is part of the government’s new policy to improve the image of Physical Education. The clowns are teaching the teachers 2.............................. to perform basic circus skills. This will enable 3........................... to offer a wider range of physical activities to the students. The Ministry of Culture, Media and Sport is concerned 4................................. the fact that many teenagers 5............................ a life lacking 6.................................. physical exercise and sports because they have lost interest in them. Statistics show that a large 7......................... of students are completely indifferent 8......................... traditional sports such as rugby, netball and hockey, which are criticised for “not being fun”. The change in the curriculum, however, is set to cause controversy among traditional teachers. A leading Physical Education Association is already opposed to 9............................. changes and questions 10............................... circus skills such as unicycling or the trapeze can conform to the schools’ strict health and safety regulations. Furthermore, the Association 11............................. doubts about these circus-type activities as they offer nothing to a student’s future. The Association made it clear that its members are not against any change to the Physical Education curriculum, but they would 12............................ provide students 13................................ the kind of activities that will be of some 14............................... to them. However, other teachers consider 15.................................. unfortunate that circus skills and acrobatics are looked 16.............................. on and believe that such routines can develop children’s balance, co-ordination and dexterity.

27. In some lines there is one extra word. Cross it out.

My favourite pastime
As a child, my mother she had bought me a book about dinosaurs. Thinking back, 1
I suppose that is what sparked my interest in paleontology. I was amazed by their size 2
and the fact that some of them were like as big as a house. I spent a lot of my free 3
time on drawing dinosaurs and copying illustrations from books. Later, in fourth class 4
we were taken on an excursion to a museum. That is when I saw a real dinosaur for the 5
first time. In actual fact, it was a life-size replica of one. It made such a big impression 6
on me! Of course my most favourite film is “Jurassic Park”, which I have seen twelve times! 7
During that time I also read every book on dinosaurs I could get my both hands on. 8
Today I work part-time at a museum. There, during my break up I get to 9
look at the displays and study them. I also do some volunteer work with a palaeontologist who 10
I met at the museum. I help clean dinosaur bones which are eventually fixed together 11
with a metal frame and put on the display in museums as complete skeletons. I find 12
what I do fascinating. Did you know that there are more than a thousand species of dinosaurs 13
which have been discovered? And who knows how many are to be discovered. As though 14
I learn more about our past and what the earth was like for millions of years ago, I 15
realise that I want to learn more. Once I will finish university, I hope to become a 16
palaeontologist by myself. I may even make my own discovery one day. 17

28. Complete the text with appropriate forms of the words in the brackets.

Information overload
Humans are getting 1........................................ (inform) overload thanks to faxes, e-mail and data from the Web. Almost every area of modern 2................................. (social) is swamped with data. Occupational psychologists are warning that this can be 3................................... (danger) to our health. High blood 4.................................... (press) and migraines are only two of the problems one may suffer. People are also becoming more 5........................................ (aggression) and as stress levels go up so does the 6................................... (consume) of cigarettes and alcohol. This in turn affects the immune system so people get sick more often and become 7............................... (exhaust) easily. This is quite 8.................................. (irony) considering that electronic age is supposed to make our lives 9................................ (easy). Therefore, we must make the effort to cut down on using computers, mobile phones and pagers. In the final 10........................... (analyse), leading a 11............................... (health) life is more important than anything we can get out of the computer.

29. Some of the lines have extra words in them. Cross the extra words out.

Teen trends
Since the middle of the twentieth century famous fashion designers have influenced 1
teenagers’ tastes in clothes. But they are not themselves the only ones who have. Pop 2
and film stars set their own other trends and influence teenagers in a number of ways. 3
Teenagers who idealise these stars copy their own looks. Take for example Madonna, who 4
always has her own style of dressing herself. It wasn’t long before many teenage Madonnas 5
appeared, wearing huge crucifixes and having their hair been cut and styled just like hers. 6
Sadly, however, teenagers do not only become fashion of victims, but they also adopt attitudes 7
and behaviour patterns wich could be detrimental. For instance, rock stars who may 8
be aggressive or connected with drugs can influence their young fans on one way or another. 9
The consequences of all this depend on how far and how long teenagers have a 10
hang-up on their idol. Parents understandably object them, become worried about 11
sudden changes in their children’s behaviour and often argue with them. In the end, 12
parents realise that there is little chance of changing their children’s way of the thinking. 13
Teenagers, however, soon lose an interest in their idols and move on to other things. 14
All in all, although teenagers are influenced by stars, this usually seems to be a passing phase. 15

30. Read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. Use only one word.

A talent for lying
Although we are all natural born liars, most of us seem to take it 1.............................. granted that lying is bad. However difficult this fact might be to face 2............................ to, psychologists argue that lying is just 3........................ important as any other social skill we possess. We learn 4.......................... art of deception very early in life; by the age of five, we have not only become more efficient 5.............................. lying, but we have also learned how to read people’s reactions and act accordingly. 6......................... instance, if someone is avoiding direct eye contact with us, this makes us think that we’re being lied to so we might lie too. A person’s smile is also 7.......................... giveaway. A genuine smile makes the skin near the eyes crease, whereas a ‘put on’ smile doesn’t have the 8....................... effect on the facial features 9....................... a real one. Another classic sign of lying is fidgeting, that is touching one’s nose and ears, or playing with hair and clothes.
Even though both women and men know how to watch 10.............................. for clues that somebody is lying, it is a fact that women are 11............................... more skilful liars 12............................ men. Despite this, women are also more affected by other people’s feelings, so they have more sympathy 13......................... them. As a result, women tend to be 14........................ willing to have 15............................. honest conversation.
31. Complete the text below with the correct form of the words in bold type.

Life expectancy
The longest – living person ................................ recorded lived to be over 120 years and official
237 days old. In general, the number of people who live to be over one hundred is increasing,
especially among women, yet there isn’t a single ........................... who can fully explain this science
phenomenon. Some of them claim that it’s purely a ............................. fact. biology
However in the developing countries, where ........................ progress is slower, life expectancy science
is much less. According to ......................... records life expectancy for these people is about medicine
forty years. ............................ reasons are mainly responsible for this and as a result a high economics
percentage of the population suffers from malnutrition. One must also ............................ emphasis
the fact that sanitary conditions in developing countries are rather ............................ . hygiene
To .........................., proper housing and sanitation, adequate healthcare and a(n) summary
................................ diet play an important part in a person’s life expectancy. nutrition

32. Read the text below and decide which answer from the brackets best fits each space.

Plastic Money
In the past, people bought goods using 1............................... (change, cash, notes, currency). They rarely 2....................... (lent, let, borrowed, kept) money from financial institutions and only when they had 3....................... (afforded, owned, saved, possessed)the money, did they buy what they wanted. Recently, however, there have been great changes in the way people purchase goods. Consumers have never had it better 4................................. (thanks to, according to, in spite of, instead of) all the different forms of payment available. To begin with, some people pay for things by cheque, while others prefer monthly 5........................... (sums, deposits, budgets, instalments), rather than paying the whole 6............................ (amount, debt, bill, cost) at once. Most customers, though, prefer to buy things using their credit cards. 7................................ (Last but not least, One by one, By and large, Every now and then), it is thought that there are 8............................ (profits, interests, benefits, earnings) to having a credit card. Apart from being handy, some stores offer bonus points to people 9............................. (doing, making, buying, taking) purchases, while others give 10......................... (bargains, discounts, tips, prizes) on certain products. All a consumer has to do is make 11......................... (a guess, a difference, a choice, certain) between the credit cards available. On the other hand, credit cards must be used wisely because they can prove disastrous. In the long run, consumers find that they can’t 12........................... (go, make, be, do) without their credit cards and constantly reply13.......................... (on, in, to, of) them, as they are ‘easy money’. As a result, some people lose control of their finances and spend more than they should, not being able to 14.............................. (make matters worse, make ends meet, do their best, do business). So, they end up in .......................... (debt, loan, charge, owe) and have difficulty 15........................ ( to pay, to paying, in pay, in paying) it back. This brings them to a difficult 16................................ (economic, economical, payment, financial) situation.

33. Some of the words in this text shouldn’t be there. Cross them out.

Haile
1. Last summer was a turning point in my life. I would never have to
2. understood what suffering meant if I hadn’t become a volunteer at
3. the Somalian Refugee Camp in Eastern Ethiopia. It was a mission I
4. couldn’t turn it down. When my parents heard the news, they were
5. taken by a surprise, but they could understand my wanting to come to
6. the aid of my fellow man. My outlook on life and war changed, all because
7. of Haile, a young Somalian boy who drew to my attention right from the
8. beginning. He must had lost both his parents and had cut himself off
9. completely from everyone. His world was in few pieces. He couldn’t eat
10. or drink for days and I knew I had to do something before it was too late.
11. I was unable to can speak to him in his own language, so I started
12. reading stories to him in English. He was used to wait for me at my tent
13. every evening. Of course, he couldn’t have understand the language, but I
14. knew he understood the way I felt about him. What I did must to have
15. helped, as he began showing some interest in life again. Today, I might
think of Haile and wonder what he’s doing.

3. Read the text below and decide which answer from the brackets best fits each space.

Advertising
In this day and age advertising is big business. It 1.............................. (sets, puts, lays, does) a lot of effort into effectively 2.......................... (introducing, explaining, informing, mentioning) the public about a product or service. Decades ago 3................................ (announcements, descriptions, publicity, information) for new products occurred through radio 4............................. (notices, reports, commercials, statements) or simple newspaper advertisements. Today, they are introduced through a 5.................................. (variety, choice, collection, selection) of means. Companies can choose 6................................ (from, between, through, throughout) the print media, television, radio or even huge lit – up billboards that 7.......................... (have been, have being, had been, had being) put up around our cities and which 8............................. (mean, approve, suggest, consult) that we buy this type of ice-cream or that type of trainer. Advertising companies use a number of techniques to attract our attention, including stunning photography, eye-catching graphics, jingles or clever 9............................ (descriptions, comments, reports, announcements). 10............................... To be more specific, Yet, Besides, What is more), companies may employ famous people like film stars to 11.................................... (recommend, suggest, advise, propose) their products. However, many governments have introduced rules and regulations that advertisers must follow and which 12.................................. (reveal, indicate, point, show) what may and may not be done. These codes of conduct 13............................... (reassure, insure, ensure, confirm) that advertisers don’t make exaggerated claims or offend certain groups of people. In some countries, advertisements can be 14.......................... (published, displayed, illustrated, demonstrated) only in specific areas. 15............................. (Furthermore, Nevertheless, Otherwise, Likewise), some countries do not 16.............................. (accept, admit, agree, approve) of the advertising of certain products, like tobacco, so they don’t allow such advertising at all.


ANSWERS TO THE EXERCISES

Ex. 1
1. with
2. so
3. order
4. as
5. so
6. Since/As
7. therefore/so
8. of
9. due
10. despite
11. spite
12. whereas/but
Ex. 2
1. because
2. many
3. from
4. owing/due/thanks
5. takes
6. have
7. for
8. their
9. to
10. although/while
11. about/of
12. though
13. like
14. with
15. having
16. so
17. however/though
18. have/enjoy
19. despite
20. from
21. by
22. at
Ex. 3
1. ignore
2. robbed
3. blow
4. criminals
5. since
6. avoided
7. chasing
8. however
9. off
10. for fear of
11. taken
12. purpose
13. nuisance
14. by
15. blame
16. accused
17. took
18. but
19. prevent
Ex. 4
1. considerable
2. sensible
3. ignorance
4. preferable
5. difference
6. containing
7. undesirable
8. bodies
9. resistant
10. discovery
Ex. 5
1. secure
2. produced
3. for
4. diseases
5. pay
6. protect
7. endangers
8. pain
9. fragile
10. suffer
11. recover
12. lead
13. harmed
14. unhealthy
15. up
16. as long as
Ex. 6
1. announced
2. with
3. after all
4. offer
5. suit
6. off
7. with
8. similar
9. suitable
10. ideal
11. warned
12. like
13. outsider
14. unlike
15. bear
16. apologised
17. tell
Ex. 7
1. whenever
2. fastest
3. proud
4. success
5. somebody/someone
6. pursuit
7. excellence
8. dampen
9. thought
10. determination
11. American
12. European
Ex. 8
1. when
2. if
3. so
4. having
5. taken
6. in
7. due
8. despite
9. order
10. long
11. of
12. whereas/while
13. unless
14. out
15. rather
16. time
Ex. 9
1. ideal
2. involved
3. manage
4. although
5. raise
6. in
7. place
8. achieve
9. experienced
10. effect
11. eager
12. suffer
13. support
14. costs
15. nevertheless
16. improves
Ex. 10
1. down
2. ever
3. being
4. out
5. do
6. their
7. between
8. however
9. from
10. another
11. more
12. time
13. of
14. have
15. when
16. in
Ex. 11
1. ٧
2. will
3. of
4. either
5. so
6. ٧
7. which
8. ٧
9. rather
10. enough
11. ٧
12. ٧
13. right
14. at
15. in
16. ٧
17. little
Ex. 12
1. philosopher
2. mathematician
3. respected
4. greatly
5. remarkable
6. extensive
7. discovery
8. angled
9. addition
10. scientists
11. contribution

Ex. 13
1. discovered
2. assistant
3. gained
4. staff
5. proved
6. curious
7. out
8. interest
9. noticed
10. attack
11. series
12. came up with
13. stopped
14. rate
15. available
16. reported
Ex. 14
1. than
2. even
3. of
4. on
5. themselves
6. to
7. between
8. if/when/whenever
9. from
10. well
11. ca/could
12. whereas/while
13. out
14. likely
15. much
16. or
Ex. 15
1. ٧
2. on
3. them
4. as
5. own
6. if
7. up
8. do
9. ٧
10. ٧
11. too
12. who
13. ٧
14. very
15. ourselves
16. ٧
17. little
Ex. 16
1. sunny
2. impression
3. mixture
4. flattened
5. practically
6. resemblance
7. sensitive
8. accuracy
9. fatal
10. painful
11. unfriendly
Ex. 17
1. related
2. size
3. reaches
4. considered
5. like
6. common
7. skilled
8. appear
9. on average
10. valuable
11. incapable
12. protest
13. attempts
14. allow
15. in this way
16. ensuring
Ex. 18
1. make
2. no
3. worth
4. fact
5. ways
6. the
7. about
8. where
9. get/take
10. as/since/because
11. through
12. if
13. like
14. order
15. in
16. last
Ex. 19
1. ٧
2. being
3. such
4. up
5. as
6. been
7. ٧
8. out
9. they
10. ٧
11. to
12. for
13. not
14. also
15. yourself
16. ٧
17. ٧
Ex. 20
1. developed
2. physicist
3. simply
4. successfully
5. endanger
6. ability
7. (in)valuable
8. defence
9. various
10. instructions
11. collisions
Ex. 21
1. reach
2. ambition
3. for
4. forgot
5. passed away
6. opportunity
7. expedition
8. avoid
9. voyage
10. head
11. due to
12. discourage
13. set out
14. exploring
15. of
16. possessed
Ex. 22
1. by
2. when
3. in
4. on
5. than
6. result
7. to
8. were
9. which
10. of
11. take
12. so
13. ona
14. after
15. been
16. like
Ex. 23
1. ٧
2. that
3. for
4. to
5. of
6. own
7. had
8. were
9. ٧
10. ٧
11. which
12. few
13. whole
14. more
15. being
16. ٧
17. about
18. ٧
Ex. 24
1. remarkable
2. unbelievable
3. examination
4. miscalculation
5. success
6. strength
7. specific
8. confidence
9. achievement
10. fastest
11. intention
Ex. 25
1. confuse
2. similar
3. amounts
4. move
5. case
6. damage
7. forced
8. measures
9. warn
10. possibility
11. process
12. building uo
13. effective
14. not only
15. under
16. in the event
Ex. 26
1. not
2. how
3. them
4. about
5. lead
6. in
7. number
8. to
9. these
10. whethe/if
11. has
12. rather
13. with
14. use/help
15. it
16. down
Ex. 27
1. she
2. ٧
3. like
4. on
5. ٧
6. ٧
7. most
8. both
9. up
10. ٧
11. ٧
12. the
13. ٧
14. though
15. for
16. will
17. by
Ex. 28
1. information
2. society
3. dangerous
4. pressure
5. aggressive
6. consumption
7. exhausted
8. ironic(al)
9. easier
10. analysis
11. healthy
Ex. 29
1. ٧
2. themselves
3. other
4. own
5. herself
6. been
7. of
8. ٧
9. on
10. ٧
11. them
12. ٧
13. the
14. an
15. ٧
Ex. 30
1. for
2. up
3. as
4. the
5. at
6. for
7. a
8. same
9. as
10. out
11. far/much
12. than
13. for
14. more
15. an
EX. 31
1. officially
2. scientist
3. biological
4. scientific
5. medical
6. economic
7. emphasise
8. unhygienic
9. summarise
10. nutritious
Ex. 32
1. cash
2. borrowed
3. saved
4. thanks to
5. instalments
6. amount
7. by and large
8. benefits
9. making
10. discounts
11. a choice
12. do
13. on
14. make ends meet
15. debt
16. in paying
17. financial
Ex. 33
1. to
2. ٧
3. ٧
4. it
5. a
6. ٧
7. to
8. must
9. few
10. ٧
11. can
12. was
13. have
14. to
15. might
Ex. 34
1. puts
2. informing
3. publicity
4. commercials
5. variety
6. from
7. have been
8. suggest
9. comments
10. what is more
11. recommend
12. indicate
13. ensure
14. displayed
15. furthermore
16. approve

O nas | Reklama | Kontakt
Redakcja serwisu nie ponosi odpowiedzialności za treść publikacji, ogłoszeń oraz reklam.
Copyright © 2002-2018 Edux.pl
| Polityka prywatności | Wszystkie prawa zastrzeżone.
Prawa autorskie do publikacji posiadają autorzy tekstów.