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Numer: 12416
Dział: Języki obce


Motivation is one of the main elements that decide on effectiveness of learning. It is ‘a state of readiness of a rational being to take specific action or a syndrome of psychological and physiological processes caused by the need defining the reason for behaviour ant its variations’ (Reykowski, 1985). Harmer (2001) distinguises intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The former is when a person strives for fulfilling his needs, for instance, he likes learning, he wants to achieve satisfaction. The latter – extrinsic motivation – deals with arousing needs by punishing and awarding as well as informing about opportunities and manipulating these opportunities, such as a better job, a prize in words or in money.
There are no doubts that a teacher influences learners’ motivation greatly. If the level of motivation is high, a lector’s role is to remain it at current level. However, if the level is too low, he should aspire to raise it.
The increase of the level of motivation can be achieved by establishing the short term and long term goals bearing in mind that when long term aims are too difficult, they may discourage a pupil easily. However, short term goals consist of the method of small steps which encourages a learner to further work. Then, a friendly atmosphere and good relation between a teacher and his charge should be created. What is more, learning in a cosy and spacious classroom with plenty of posters, wall charts and other decorations is an advantage. Finally, when classes are conducted in an interesting manner with a variety of teaching methods and forms.
Motivation of learners is flexible and easy to alter in a positive and negative manner. It may increase when it hits stimulus or decrease in case of inproper process of learning. However, it is worth remembering that it depends greatly on both teachers and students and only the cooperation between them gives an opportunity to achieve the success.

Harmer, J., 2001, The practice of English language teaching. Pearson Education Limited.
Reykowski, J., 1985, Emocje i motywacja in Tomaszewski, T. (ed.), Psychologia. PWN

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