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Numer: 12413
Dział: Języki obce

Error types

Errors are evidence that progress is being made. Errors often show us that a student is experimenting with language, trying out ideas, taking risks, attempting to communicate, making progress. Analysing what error have been made clarifies exactly which level he has reached and helps set the syllabus for future lg work. Mistakes have been divided into a few groups.
- Grammar mistakes
- Lexis mistakes
- Pronunciation mistakes
- Spelling mistakes
It may be depressing for the learner to notice his piece of writing contains a large amount of corrections. In order to avoid this situation, mistakes are marked with correction symbols.

EDGE (1998) distinguished three different types of mistakes.
- Slips – not intended, the mistakes occur due to tiredness, distraction or carelessness.
- Errors – happen when learners have not acquired sufficient knowledge. They are not able to correct themselves.
- Attempts - that students make to produce a text.
Edge (1998) suggests four main factors that influence the problem, namely L1 interference and developmental errors, mislearning and carelessness.
- Interference – copying sentence patterns, students try to copy words and stuctures literally which disrupt conveying and understanding of the message.
- Developmental errors result from ‘over-generalisation’. Regardless of the age, the elementary students apply certain rules of the mother tongue to the target language, for example, *Money are essential to live. Some people are conscious of the fact they do not formulate correct phrases or sentences, however, they are enthusiastic about expressing themselves since it is the best chance of conveying the message.
- carelessness that is caused by not focusing on the subject. It is the result of absent-mindedness, haste or just being tired or nervous. This type of error may appear at all stages of learning as well as they apply to all English speakers, including native speakers.
who marks the mistakes?
- teacher’s correction is immediate and it is not time-consuming, everyone in the class can hear it. the lector tends to dominate in the class, learners become passive.
- the whole class should be involved by listening to their classmates’ utterances.
- self-correction seems to be the best solution. However, it is possible only if an individual can and is able to correct himself, that is when he is aware of the mistake. The attempt of self-correction helps the teacher to realize if this is a slip of the tongue or an error which requires additional exercises.

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